News Archyuk

अनेक उद्योगों से वनों को खतरा है • Earth.com

वैज्ञानिकों ने लंबे समय से तर्क दिया है कि बरकरार है जंगलों प्रमुख जलवायु नियामक और जैव विविधता के बंदरगाह हैं। दुर्भाग्य से, ऐसे जंगल वर्तमान में खतरनाक दर से गायब हो रहे हैं। जबकि कृषि को पहले वन हानि के पीछे मुख्य अपराधी माना जाता था, एक नए अध्ययन के नेतृत्व में फुदान विश्वविद्यालय चीन में पाया गया है कि वास्तव में इसके लिए कई उद्योग भी जिम्मेदार हैं।

उदाहरण के लिए, 2014 की विश्व अर्थव्यवस्था से जुड़े वन हानि के लिए, 60 प्रतिशत से अधिक खनिज, धातु और लकड़ी से संबंधित वस्तुओं सहित गैर-कृषि उत्पादों की अंतिम खपत से संबंधित था। इसके अलावा, विशेषज्ञों के अनुसार, संरक्षण रणनीतियों को डिजाइन करते समय अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार बाजारों को भी ध्यान में रखा जाना चाहिए।

“क्षेत्रीय भूमि उपयोग परिवर्तन अब केवल स्थानीय मांग से प्रेरित नहीं है; यह अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से अंतरराष्ट्रीय बाजारों और भूमि आधारित उत्पादों की बढ़ती खपत से भी प्रभावित है,” अध्ययन लेखकों ने समझाया। “वन संरक्षण लक्ष्यों वाले देश वैश्विक आपूर्ति श्रृंखलाओं के माध्यम से तैयार भूमि-आधारित उत्पादों का आयात कर सकते हैं, भूमि-उपयोग के दबाव को विस्थापित कर सकते हैं और संबंधित पर्यावरण-पर्यावरणीय प्रभावों को अपने क्षेत्र की सीमाओं के बाहर कर सकते हैं।”

बहु-स्रोत भौगोलिक सूचना डेटा और आर्थिक मॉडलिंग का उपयोग करके, वैज्ञानिकों ने वन हानि के प्रत्यक्ष और अप्रत्यक्ष दोनों कारणों का मूल्यांकन किया। जबकि पिछले शोध में बड़े पैमाने पर वनों की कटाई (वृक्षों के आवरण को पूरी तरह से हटाने) पर ध्यान केंद्रित किया गया था, इस नए अध्ययन में क्षरण और विखंडन द्वारा निभाई गई घातक भूमिकाओं पर भी प्रकाश डाला गया है।

“जंगलों के संकरे इलाकों को हटाने से भी समग्र वन संरचना और संरचना प्रभावित हो सकती है। स्थलीय कार्बन स्टॉक को स्थिर करने और जैव विविधता को बरकरार रखने के संदर्भ में अक्षुण्ण वन परिदृश्य के असाधारण संरक्षण मूल्य को ध्यान में रखते हुए, अक्षुण्ण वन परिदृश्य हानि विस्थापन भी कार्बन उत्सर्जन और जैव विविधता हानि के पीछे संभावित अप्रत्यक्ष ड्राइविंग बलों को प्रतिबिंबित कर सकता है, ”लेखकों ने लिखा।

“यह व्यापक रूप से माना जाता है कि गोमांस उत्पादन अमेज़न में वनों की कटाई को बढ़ाता है, लेकिन उपभोक्ताओं के लिए यह महसूस करना कठिन है कि अत्यधिक संसाधित उपकरणों के उत्पादन में अक्षुण्ण वन की कीमत पर लकड़ी और धातु का उत्पादन शामिल हो सकता है और तृतीयक क्षेत्रों द्वारा प्रदान की जाने वाली सेवाएं हो सकती हैं। इस नुकसान से जुड़े तेल और गैस से उत्पन्न बिजली द्वारा समर्थित। अक्षुण्ण वन हानि चालकों की अधिक बिखरी हुई प्रकृति और व्यक्तिगत अंतिम उपभोक्ताओं के लिए उनके अप्रत्यक्ष संबंध मजबूत सरकारी जुड़ाव और आपूर्ति-श्रृंखला हस्तक्षेप की मांग करते हैं,” उन्होंने निष्कर्ष निकाला।

अध्ययन पत्रिका में प्रकाशित हुआ है एक पृथ्वी.

-—

Andrei Ionescu द्वारा, Earth.com स्टाफ लेखक

हमें देखें EarthSnapEric Ralls और Earth.com द्वारा आपके लिए लाया गया एक निःशुल्क ऐप।

!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)
{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?
n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};
if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;
n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;
t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];
s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,

fbq(‘init’, ‘2365443017099869’);
fbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);

!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)
{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?
n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};
if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;
n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;
t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];
s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,

fbq(‘init’, ‘739820399903214’);
fbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);

!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)
{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?
n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};
if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;
n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;
t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];
s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,

fbq(‘init’, ‘1249311992480159’);
fbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);
{“props”:{“ads”:{“global”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.googletag = window.googletag || {cmd: []};rn googletag.cmd.push (function () {rn if(window.innerWidth u003e 1000) {rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_3’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_3’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_4’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_4’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x600_desktop_sidebar_1’, [[300,600],[160,600],[300,250],[300,300]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x600_desktop_sidebar_2’, [[300,600],[160,600],[300,250],[300,300]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_top’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_top’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_middle_1’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_middle_2’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_bottom’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_bottom’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_728x90_desktop_leaderboard_1’, [[728,90],[468,60]], ‘earth_728x90_leaderboard_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn } else {rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_3’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_3’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_4’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_4’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_ad_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_ad_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_top’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_top’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_middle_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_middle_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_bottom’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_bottom’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_leaderboard_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_728x90_leaderboard_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn }rnrn var interstitialSlot = googletag.defineOutOfPageSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_interstitial’, googletag.enums.OutOfPageFormat.INTERSTITIAL);rn if (interstitialSlot) interstitialSlot.addService(googletag.pubads());rn rn googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest();rn googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad();rn googletag.enableServices();rn googletag.display(interstitialSlot);rn });rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Google tag (gtag.js) –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘UA-53482295-3’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Google tag (gtag.js) –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-11047835397’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 10941034922 –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10941034922’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Analytics –u003ernu003cscript async src=” type=”text/javascript”u003ern window.pg = window.pg || []; pg.acq = pg.acq || []; // build consent queuern pg.acq.push(function () {rn if (window.attachEvent) {rn window.attachEvent(“onload”, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘ iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn console.log(body)rn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn });rn } else {rn document.addEventListener(‘DOMContentLoaded’, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘ iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn }, false);rn }rn });rnrnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscriptu003ern window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag() { dataLayer.push(arguments); }rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘UA-53482295-3’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern if (window.attachEvent) {rn window.attachEvent(“onload”, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘ iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn console.log(body)rn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn });rn } else {rn document.addEventListener(‘DOMContentLoaded’, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘ iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn }, false);rn }rnrnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.assertive = {rn debug: false,rn entityId: “RvkSvSy8HBpzLkExm”,rn analytics: {rn sampleRate: 1,rn custom: {rn layout: null,rn userState: null,rn custom_1: null,rn custom_2: null,rn custom_3: null,rn custom_4: null,rn custom_5: null,rn custom_6: null,rn custom_7: null,rn custom_8: null,rn custom_9: null,rn },rn },rn predict: {rn enabled: true,rntttentityId: ‘RvkSvSy8HBpzLkExm’,rn },rn hash: {rn generator: “server”,rn values: 5000,rn key: function() {rn return [localStorage.getItem(“ay_utm_s”)].join(“|”);rn },rn },rnstorage: {rn session: {rn resetOn: {rn paramChange: [rn ‘utm_campaign’,rn ‘utm_medium’,rn ‘fbclid’, // facebookrn ‘gclid’, // googlern ‘tblci’, // taboolarn ‘obclid’, // outbrainrn ‘vmcid’, // gemini (yahoo)rn ],rn }rn },rn }rn };rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern addEventListener(‘assertive_predictedRevenue’, function(e) {rn if (typeof fbq === undefined) return;rn var transactionId = e.data.meta.impressionUUID;rn fbq(‘track’, ‘Purchase’, {rn currency: “USD”,rn value: e.data.predictedRevenueCPM.impression,rn transactionId: transactionIdrn }); rn fbq(‘trackCustom’, ‘VV’, {rn currency: “USD”,rn value: e.data.predictedRevenueCPM.session / 1000,rn transactionId: transactionIdrn });rn }, false);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Google Tag Manager –u003ernu003cscriptu003e(function(w,d,s,l,i){w[l]=w[l]||[];w[l].push({‘gtm.start’:rnnew Date().getTime(),event:’gtm.js’});var f=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],rnj=d.createElement(s),dl=l!=’dataLayer’?’u0026l=”+l:”‘;j.async=true;j.src=rn’ End Google Tag Manager –u003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 782118155 –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-782118155’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Event snippet for Website traffic conversion page –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern gtag(‘event’, ‘conversion’, {‘send_to’: ‘AW-782118155/XMJKCM2smucBEIva-PQC’});rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernfunction e(e){var t=!(arguments.lengthu003e1u0026u0026void 0!==arguments[1])||arguments[1],c=document.createElement(“script”);c.src=e,t?c.type=”module”:(c.async=!0,c.type=”text/javascript”,c.setAttribute(“nomodule”,””));var n=document.getElementsByTagName(“script”)[0];n.parentNode.insertBefore(c,n)}function t(t,c,n){var a,o,r;null!==(a=t.marfeel)u0026u0026void 0!==a||(t.marfeel={}),null!==(o=(r=t.marfeel).cmd)u0026u0026void 0!==o||(r.cmd=[]),t.marfeel.config=n,t.marfeel.config.accountId=c;var i=” n=arguments.lengthu003e2u0026u0026void 0!==arguments[2]?arguments[2]:{};t(e,c,n)}(window,302 /*accountId*/,{} /*config*/);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)rn{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?rnn.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};rnif(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;rnn.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;rnt.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];rns.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,rn’rnfbq(‘init’, ‘2365443017099869’);rnfbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cnoscriptu003eu003cimg height=”1″ width=”1″ style=”display:none”rnsrc=” End Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)rn{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?rnn.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};rnif(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;rnn.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;rnt.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];rns.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,rn’rnfbq(‘init’, ‘739820399903214’);rnfbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cnoscriptu003eu003cimg height=”1″ width=”1″ style=”display:none”rnsrc=” End Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern!function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)rn{if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod?rnn.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};rnif(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version=’2.0′;rnn.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0;rnt.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];rns.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,’script’,rn’rnfbq(‘init’, ‘1249311992480159’);rnfbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cnoscriptu003eu003cimg height=”1″ width=”1″ style=”display:none”rnsrc=” End Meta Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 10941034922 –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10941034922’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 10825272150 –u003ernu003cscript async src=” window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10825272150’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin header tag –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern var blogherads = blogherads || {};rn blogherads.adq = blogherads.adq || [];rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” BLOGHER ADS End header tag –u003e”}}},”home”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:””,”ad”:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”interstitial-1″:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-2’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”interstitial-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 728×90 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-banner-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘banner’, ‘skm-ad-banner-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 728×90 ad –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”interstitial-3″:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×600 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-flexrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘flexrec’, ‘skm-ad-flexrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×600 ad –u003e”}},”headlines”:{“header”:{“script”:””,”ad”:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-3″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”news”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:””,”ad”:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_middle”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_bottom”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6185″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”}},”infinite”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin header tag –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern var blogherads = blogherads || {};rn blogherads.adq = blogherads.adq || [];rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” BLOGHER ADS End header tag –u003e”,”ad”:”u003cdiv data-onpage=true data-adpath=”/339474670,48037644/Earth/ATF”u003eu003c/divu003e”},”interstitial”:””,”interstitial-2″:””,”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”video”:{“main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar_top”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_middle”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_bottom”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”}},”image”:{“main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar_top”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_middle”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar_bottom”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”}},”gallery”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”}},”image_gallery_infinite”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin header tag –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern var blogherads = blogherads || {};rn blogherads.adq = blogherads.adq || [];rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” BLOGHER ADS End header tag –u003e”,”ad-1″:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”ad-2″:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-728-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-728-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”interstitial-1″:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-728-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-728-2’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”interstitial-2″:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-728-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-728-3’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”after-title”:”u003cdiv id=”responsive-ad-728-4″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-728-4’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”after-image”:””,”right-sidebar-1″:” u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6251″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rn u003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”right-sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×600 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-flexrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘flexrec’, ‘skm-ad-flexrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×600 ad –u003e”,”floating”:””},”image_gallery_show”:{“header”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin header tag –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern var blogherads = blogherads || {};rn blogherads.adq = blogherads.adq || [];rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” type=”text/javascript” async=”async” data-cfasync=”false” src=” BLOGHER ADS End header tag –u003e”,”top”:{“left-1″:””,”left-2″:””,”right-1″:””,”right-2″:””},”interstitial-1″:””,”interstitial-2″:””,”sidebar”:””},”earthpedia-main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-3″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-4″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-4″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-4’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”bottom_floating”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-5″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-5’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”earthpedia-articles”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-3″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”earthpedia-category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”earthpedia-article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×600 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-flexrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘flexrec’, ‘skm-ad-flexrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×600 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×600 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-flexrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘flexrec’, ‘skm-ad-flexrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×600 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”},”plant”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”}},”animal”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” data-onpage=true data-adpath=”/339474670,48037644/Earth/ATF”u003eu003c/divu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”under_content”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6223″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rnu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”floating_right”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”}},”endangered-species”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript async=”” src=” id=”responsive-ad-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernblogherads.adq.push(function () {rn blogherads.defineResponsiveSlot([rn [[970, 0], ‘flexbanner’],rn [[728,0], ‘banner’],rn [[0, 0], ‘mobileincontent’]rn ], ‘responsive-ad-1’).display();rn});rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar-top”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-1″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-1’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-middle”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-2″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-2’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”,”sidebar-bottom”:”u003c!– BLOGHER ADS Begin 300×250 ad –u003ernu003cdiv id=”skm-ad-medrec-3″u003eu003c/divu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern blogherads.adq.push([‘medrec’, ‘skm-ad-medrec-3’]);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– BLOGHER ADS End 300×250 ad –u003e”}},”playground”:{“article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscript src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.googletag = window.googletag || {cmd: []};rn googletag.cmd.push (function () {rn if(window.innerWidth u003e 1000) {rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_3’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_3’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_desktop_sidebar_4’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_4’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x600_desktop_sidebar_1’, [[300,600],[160,600],[300,250],[300,300]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x600_desktop_sidebar_2’, [[300,600],[160,600],[300,250],[300,300]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_top’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_top’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_middle_1’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_middle_2’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_970x250_desktop_bottom’, [[970,250],[970,90],[728,90],[970,200],[970,120],[950,90],[728,100],[728,250]], ‘earth_970x250_bottom’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_728x90_desktop_leaderboard_1’, [[728,90],[468,60]], ‘earth_728x90_leaderboard_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn } else {rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_3’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_3’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_4’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x250_sidebar_4’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_ad_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_sidebar_ad_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_300x600_sidebar_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_top’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_top’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_middle_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_middle_2’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_middle_2’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_bottom’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_970x250_bottom’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn googletag.defineSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_300x250_mobile_leaderboard_1’, [[300,250],[250,250]], ‘earth_728x90_leaderboard_1’).addService(googletag.pubads());rn }rnrn var interstitialSlot = googletag.defineOutOfPageSlot(‘/48037644/earth.com_interstitial’, googletag.enums.OutOfPageFormat.INTERSTITIAL);rn if (interstitialSlot) interstitialSlot.addService(googletag.pubads());rn rn googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest();rn googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad();rn googletag.enableServices();rn googletag.display(interstitialSlot);rnrnwindow.stpd = window.stpd || {que: []};rnstpd.que.push((function() {rn stpd.initialize();rn}));rnrn });rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:”u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ernu003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6210″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscript type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”},”sidebar”:” u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6251″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rn u003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”,”sidebar_middle”:” u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6251″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rn u003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003ernrn”,”sidebar_bottom”:” u003c!– Whizzco Widget –u003ern u003cdiv class=”ads_container” website_id=”2392″ widget_id=”6251″u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptrn type=”text/javascript” src=” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003e rn u003c!– End Whizzco Widget –u003e”}}},”seo”:{“html”:”u003c!– This site is optimized with the Yoast SEO Premium plugin v19.4 (Yoast SEO v19.9) – –u003enu003ctitleu003eForests face threats from multiple industries u0026bull; Earth.comu003c/titleu003enu003cmeta name=”description” content=”While agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by Fudan University in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too.” /u003enu003cmeta name=”robots” content=”index, follow, max-snippet:-1, max-image-preview:large, max-video-preview:-1″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:locale” content=”en_US” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:type” content=”article” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:title” content=”Forests face threats from multiple industries” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:description” content=”Forests face threats from multiple industries u0026bull; Earth.com” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:url” content=” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:site_name” content=”Earth.com” /u003enu003cmeta property=”article:publisher” content=” /u003enu003cmeta property=”article:modified_time” content=”2023-01-21T13:22:27+00:00″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:image” content=” /u003entu003cmeta property=”og:image:width” content=”2560″ /u003entu003cmeta property=”og:image:height” content=”1709″ /u003entu003cmeta property=”og:image:type” content=”image/jpeg” /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:card” content=”summary_large_image” /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:site” content=”@earthdotcom” /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:label1″ content=”Est. reading time” /u003entu003cmeta name=”twitter:data1″ content=”2 minutes” /u003enu003cscript type=”application/ld+json” class=”yoast-schema-graph”u003e{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@graph”:[{“@type”:”NewsArticle”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries/#article”,”isPartOf”:{“@id”:”},”author”:{“name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”@id”:” face threats from multiple industries”,”datePublished”:”2023-01-21T13:00:00+00:00″,”dateModified”:”2023-01-21T13:22:27+00:00″,”mainEntityOfPage”:{“@id”:”},”wordCount”:391,”publisher”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#organization”},”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”copyrightYear”:”2023″,”copyrightHolder”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#organization”}},{“@type”:”WebPage”,”@id”:”,”url”:”,”name”:”Forests face threats from multiple industries u0026bull; Earth.com”,”isPartOf”:{“@id”:” agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by Fudan University in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too.”,”breadcrumb”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries/#breadcrumb”},”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”potentialAction”:[{“@type”:”ReadAction”,”target”:[“]}]},{“@type”:”BreadcrumbList”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries/#breadcrumb”,”itemListElement”:[{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:1,”name”:”Home”,”item”:”https://www.earth.com/”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:2,”name”:”News”,”item”:”https://www.earth.com/news/”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:3,”name”:”Environment”,”item”:”https://www.earth.com/news-category/environment/”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:4,”name”:”Forests face threats from multiple industries”}]},{“@type”:”WebSite”,”@id”:” * Science * Life”,”publisher”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#organization”},”potentialAction”:[{“@type”:”SearchAction”,”target”:{“@type”:”EntryPoint”,”urlTemplate”:”https://www.earth.com/?s={search_term_string}”},”query-input”:”required name=search_term_string”}],”inLanguage”:”en-US”},{“@type”:”Organization”,”@id”:” Inc.”,”url”:” Inc.”},”image”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#/schema/logo/image/”},”sameAs”:[“https://www.instagram.com/earthdotcom”,”https://www.linkedin.com/company/earthdotcom”,”https://www.pinterest.com/earthdotcom/”,”,”https://twitter.com/earthdotcom”]},{“@type”:”Person”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#/schema/person/58fcc0c23ef9ad66357f2b570e7c01a9″,”name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”image”:{“@type”:”ImageObject”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”@id”:” Ionescu”},”sameAs”:[” / Yoast SEO Premium plugin. –u003e”},”__N_SSP”:true,”pageProps”:{“article”:{“post”:{“ID”:1914637,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-21 06:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-21 13:00:00″,”post_content”:”nu003cpu003eScientists have long argued that intact u003ca href=” are major climate regulators and harbors of biodiversity. Unfortunately, such forests are currently disappearing at an alarming rate. While agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by u003ca href=” Universityu003c/au003e in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eFor instance, for forest loss associated with the 2014 world economy, more than 60 percent was related to final consumption of non-agricultural products, including minerals, metals, and wood-related goods. Moreover, according to the experts, international trade markets should also be taken into account when designing conservation strategies.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“Regional land use change is no longer simply driven by local demand; it is also indirectly influenced by international markets and the surging consumption of land-based products,” the study authors explained. “Countries with forest conservation goals can import finished land-based products via global supply chains, displacing land-use pressure and related eco-environmental impacts outside their own territory borders.”u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eBy using multi-source geographic information data and economic modelling, the scientists evaluated both the direct and the indirect causes of forest loss. While previous research has largely focused on deforestation (the complete removal of tree cover), this new study also highlighted the insidious roles played by degradation and fragmentation.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“Even the removal of narrow tracts of forests can affect overall forest structure and composition. Considering the exceptional conservation value of intact forest landscapes in terms of stabilizing terrestrial carbon stocks and harboring biodiversity, intact forest landscapes loss displacement can also reflect potential indirect driving forces behind carbon emissions and biodiversity loss,” the authors wrote.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“It is widely thought that beef production drives deforestation in the Amazon, but it is hard for consumers to realize that the production of highly processed equipment may involve timber and metals produced at the expense of intact forest and that services provided by tertiary sectors may be supported by electricity generated from oil and gas associated with this loss. The more dispersed nature of intact forest loss drivers and their indirect links to individual final consumers call for stronger government engagement and supply-chain interventions,” they concluded.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” Earthu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003en”,”post_title”:”Forests face threats from multiple industries”,”post_excerpt”:”While agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by Fudan University in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-21 06:22:27″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-21 13:22:27″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” src=” class=”img-fluid h-100 wp-post-image” alt=”” loading=”lazy” srcset=” 2560w, 300w, 1024w, 768w, 1536w, 2048w” sizes=”(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px” /u003e”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”formatted_date”:”01-21-2023″},”sidebar”:[{“ID”:1914637,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-21 06:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-21 13:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eScientists have long argued that intact u003ca href=” are major climate regulators and harbors of biodiversity. Unfortunately, such forests are currently disappearing at an alarming rate. While agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by u003ca href=” Universityu003c/au003e in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFor instance, for forest loss associated with the 2014 world economy, more than 60 percent was related to final consumption of non-agricultural products, including minerals, metals, and wood-related goods. Moreover, according to the experts, international trade markets should also be taken into account when designing conservation strategies.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Regional land use change is no longer simply driven by local demand; it is also indirectly influenced by international markets and the surging consumption of land-based products,” the study authors explained. “Countries with forest conservation goals can import finished land-based products via global supply chains, displacing land-use pressure and related eco-environmental impacts outside their own territory borders.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy using multi-source geographic information data and economic modelling, the scientists evaluated both the direct and the indirect causes of forest loss. While previous research has largely focused on deforestation (the complete removal of tree cover), this new study also highlighted the insidious roles played by degradation and fragmentation.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Even the removal of narrow tracts of forests can affect overall forest structure and composition. Considering the exceptional conservation value of intact forest landscapes in terms of stabilizing terrestrial carbon stocks and harboring biodiversity, intact forest landscapes loss displacement can also reflect potential indirect driving forces behind carbon emissions and biodiversity loss,” the authors wrote.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“It is widely thought that beef production drives deforestation in the Amazon, but it is hard for consumers to realize that the production of highly processed equipment may involve timber and metals produced at the expense of intact forest and that services provided by tertiary sectors may be supported by electricity generated from oil and gas associated with this loss. The more dispersed nature of intact forest loss drivers and their indirect links to individual final consumers call for stronger government engagement and supply-chain interventions,” they concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” Earthu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Forests face threats from multiple industries”,”post_excerpt”:”While agriculture has previously been considered the main culprit behind forest loss, a new study led by Fudan University in China has found that multiple industries are in fact to blame too. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-21 06:22:27″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-21 13:22:27″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:””,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1709,”file”:”2023/01/Forest-loss-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Forest-loss-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Forest-loss-1024×684.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:684,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Forest-loss-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Forest-loss-768×513.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:513,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Forest-loss-1536×1025.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1025,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Forest-loss-2048×1367.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1367,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Forest-loss.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Scientists have long argued that intact forests are major climate…”},{“ID”:1914124,”post_author”:”13″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 15:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 22:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study has revealed that u003ca href=” efforts in Antarctica are insufficient to protect local wildlife. The research, led by Jasmine Rachael Lee at the u003ca href=” of Queenslandu003c/au003e, predicts population declines for 65 percent of all Antarctic wildlife by the end of the century.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”We find that implementing ten key threat management strategies in parallel, at an estimated present-day equivalent annual cost of US$23 million, could benefit up to 84 percent of Antarctic taxa,” wrote the study authors.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Climate change is identified as the most pervasive threat to Antarctic biodiversity and influencing global policy to effectively limit climate change is the most beneficial conservation strategy.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”However, minimizing impacts of human activities and improved planning and management of new infrastructure projects are cost-effective and will help to minimize regional threats. Simultaneous global and regional efforts are critical to secure Antarctic biodiversity for future generations.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers set out to investigate which plant and animal species are most vulnerable and to identify the best actions.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe team analyzed existing data to evaluate threats and conservation strategies for Antarctica’s wildlife. The scientists also asked 29 experts to define potential management strategies that are cost effective.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to the results, the most serious threat to Antarctic biodiversity is climate change. If global warming exceeds the target of two degrees Celsius, 65 percent of Antarctic wildlife populations will be in s state of decline by the year 2100.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe experts said that as Antarctica faces increasing pressure from climate change and human activities, a combination of regional and global conservation efforts is needed to preserve Antarctic biodiversity and ecosystem services for future generations.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“What this work shows is that climate change is the greatest threat to Antarctic species and what we need is global mitigation efforts to save them,” said study lead author Jasmine Lee. “This will not only help to secure their future, but also our own.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” Biologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003e-u003c/emu003eu003cemu003e–u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Sextonu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Conservation efforts are not enough to save Antarctic wildlife”,”post_excerpt”:”A new study has revealed that conservation efforts in Antarctica are insufficient to protect local wildlife”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”conservation-efforts-are-not-enough-to-save-antarctic-wildlife”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 15:04:29″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 22:04:29″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Sexton”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/12/22155256/Antarctic-5-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1762,”file”:”2022/12/Antarctic-5-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-300×206.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:206,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-1024×705.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:705,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-768×529.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:529,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-1536×1057.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1057,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-2048×1410.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Antarctic-5-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Antarctic-5.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A new study has revealed that conservation efforts in Antarctica…”},{“ID”:1913850,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 12:30:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 19:30:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn our daily lives we are exposed to numerous objects that we need to recognize. For example, if something flies past the window at dusk, we would probably like to know whether this was a bird, a bat or a drone. u003ca href=” object recognition is seldom based on what our eyes perceive alone, but is influenced by the context and by our prior experiences. In addition, a new experimental study shows that what we see can also be modified by sounds that we hear at the same time, meaning that sounds can alter the way in which we perceive visual cues.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe research study, published in u003ca href=” Scienceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e,u003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;suggests that relevant audio cues can help us to recognize objects more quickly and accurately, but can also alter our visual perception. If we see a bird and hear birdsong, we quickly identify a bird. But if the presence of a bird is associated with the call of a squirrel, we become less sure of what we are looking at. The brain therefore makes use of audio input to help us decide what, exactly, we are seeing.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Your brain spends a significant amount of energy to process the sensory information in the world and to give you that feeling of a full and seamless perception,” said study lead author Jamal R. Williams from the UC San Diego. “One way that it does this is by making inferences about what sorts of information should be expected.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn the natural world, sounds are reliable predictors of the objects that cause them – dogs bark and cats meow. In this way, sounds provide independent and informative cues about the visual world. However, when we use these trusted audio cues during the early stages of identifying a visual object, they can lead us to selectively process only certain aspects of the visual features.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWilliams explained that “informed guesses” based on audio input can help us to process information more quickly, but they can also lead us astray when what we’re hearing doesn’t match up with what we expect to see.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers conducted three experiments in which participants were shown ambiguous images of objects morphing into other objects. For example, a plane became a bird and the images shown to participants could come from anywhere along the process and have features of both a plane and a bird.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn the first experiment, 40 participants were presented with ambiguous figures and, at the same time as they were trying to discriminate the nature of the object, the researchers played either a sound related to the image (birdsong or the buzz of a plane), or an unrelated sound (such as a hammer hitting a nail). After exposure to the image, participants were asked to recall which stage of the object morph they had been shown.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eTo identify the stage that they recalled, the participants used a sliding scale that could be moved in either direction, more towards a recognizable bird or more towards a recognizable plane. The results revealed that participants made their object-morph selection more quickly when they heard related (versus unrelated) sounds and that they shifted their object-morph selection to match more closely the related sounds that they had heard.u0026nbsp;The findings indicate that, when visual input is not clear-cut, the role of relevant sounds may modulate our visual perception.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“When sounds are related to pertinent visual features, those visual features are prioritized and processed more quickly compared to when sounds are unrelated to the visual features. So, if you heard the sound of a birdsong, anything bird-like is given prioritized access to visual perception,” Williams explained. “We found that this prioritization is not purely facilitatory and that your perception of the visual object is actually more bird-like than if you had heard the sound of an airplane flying overhead.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers wondered at what stage of visual recognition the audio input was having its influence – was this during the stage of visual discrimination or during the time that the participants made their decision about the object’s identity. The second experiment presented 105 participants with similar ambiguous images but coincided the audio stimuli with either the object recognition stage (when the image was on the screen) or the decision-making stage (after the image was removed and the participant had to choose its identity).u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOnce again, the audio input was found to influence participants’ speed and accuracy when the sounds were played while participants were viewing the object morph, but it had no effect when the sounds were played while they reported which object morph they had seen.u0026nbsp;The researchers concluded that real-world sounds primarily affect the perceptual process, and not the decisional process.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn the third and final experiment, the researchers played the sound to 40 participants before the object morphs were shown to them on screen. The aim of this was to test whether prior audio input influenced visual perception by affecting people’s expectations and priming them to pay more attention to certain features of the objects. This was also found to have no effect on participants’ object-morph selections.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe experts conclude that, when taken together, these findings suggest sounds alter visual perception only when audio and visual input occur at the same time.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our results suggest that naturalistic auditory information alters the representations of objects we see. Specifically, we found that visual features of object representations are shifted toward features that are congruent with a concurrent auditory stimulus: the same ambiguous object (e.g., a 50 percent seal and 50 percent hammer morph) was perceived as more hammer-like when paired with a hammer sound and more seal-like when paired with the sound of seal barking,” wrote the study authors.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“This process of recognizing objects in the world feels effortless and fast, but in reality it’s a very computationally intensive process,” said Williams. “To alleviate some of this burden, your brain is going to evaluate information from other senses.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers would like to build on these findings by exploring how sounds may influence our ability to locate objects, how visual input may influence our perception of sounds, and whether audiovisual integration is an innate or learned process.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:[email protected]”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Sounds can change the way we see things”,”post_excerpt”:”In addition, a new experimental study shows that what we see can also be modified by sounds that we hear at the same time,”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”sounds-can-change-the-way-we-see-things”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 12:32:45″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 19:32:45″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/12/20123159/See-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1707,”file”:”2022/12/See-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”See-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”See-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”See-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”See-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”See-1536×1024.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1024,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”See-2048×1365.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1365,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”See-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”See-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”See-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”See-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”See-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”See-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”See-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”See-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”See-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”See-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”See-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”See-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”See-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”See-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”See.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”In our daily lives we are exposed to numerous objects…”},{“ID”:1914630,”post_author”:”13″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 12:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 19:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFeelings of loneliness have dramatically increased among college students in the last decade, according to the National College Health Assessment. In addition, a recent survey revealed that 44 percent of U.S. college students reported u003ca href=” gain that placed them in a category of being overweight or obese.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003ePrevious research has linked loneliness with unhealthy weight and a lack of physical activity. However, few studies have examined the role of dietary patterns which may contribute to both weight gain and loneliness.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA team of researchers at u003ca href=” Mason Universityu003c/au003e set out to investigate dietary and physical activity behavior in relation to loneliness among college students. The experts analyzed data from the Health Starts Here study, which was focused on first-year students at a large college in the United States.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe analysis revealed that college students who reported a higher level of loneliness also reported a higher level of sedentary behavior and low physical activity. Furthermore, individuals who expressed more loneliness had diets that were higher in fat than students who felt low levels of loneliness.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our study supports a potential need for further research in understanding unhealthful dietary behavior and physical activity which may be related to loneliness, an emotion that impacts many college students,” said lead author Li Jiang.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Interventions to reduce loneliness may have a positive effect on health promotion in this population. This data go along with other initial findings from the Health Starts Here study that college students are not meeting healthy dietary guidelines or getting enough physical activity,” said study co-author Dr. Lawrence J. Cheskin.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings add to a growing collection of evidence that high-fat diets have an impact that reaches beyond physical health risks. Many studies have confirmed that an unhealthy diet can take a toll on mental health and well-being. In particular, experts have established that a high-fat diet increases the likelihood of developing depression.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the u003ca href=” of American College Healthu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003e-u003c/emu003eu003cemu003e–u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Sextonu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Loneliness among college students linked to unhealthy diets”,”post_excerpt”:”Feelings of loneliness have dramatically increased among college students in the last decade, according to the National College Health Assessment”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”loneliness-among-college-students-linked-to-unhealthy-diets”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 12:26:05″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 19:26:05″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Sexton”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:” (c) 2019 fizkes/Shutterstock. No use without permission.”,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:”Close,Up,Of,Multiethnic,Young,People,Gather,In,Pizzeria,Together”,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[“bar gather,enjoy lunch,multiracial chill,pub celebrate,dining out,happiness free,hungry person,relaxation concept,team together,fun indoors,group hangout,student celebration,snack time,closeup table,company rest,casual coworker,communication hanging,grabbing hands,customer order,female sitting,people reunion,piece pizza,slice break,meal share,relax view,man spend,friends socialize,cafe takeaway,delicious tasty,italian pizzeria,restaurant take,dinner guest,friendship unity,eat junk,happy multiethnic,mixed sliced,portion visitor,meeting top,millennial lifestyle,party weekend,food enjoyment,serving fast,delivery woman,male buddies,candid leisure,unhealthy having,diverse colleague,social young”]},”original_image”:”Loneliness6.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Feelings of loneliness have dramatically increased among college students in…”},{“ID”:1914627,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 10:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 17:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eSpending time in nature has been shown to benefit mental health, and natural environments are often associated with positive moods and feelings of restoration. Research into this phenomenon has focused on the effects of u003ca href=” and natural features – such as mountains, lakes and forests – on our sense of wellbeing. But a recent study, published in the u003ca href=” of Environmental Psychologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003esuggests it is not only these enduring features of a landscape that bring therapeutic value. Temporary natural events like sunsets that take place on a daily basis may be just as important when we attribute value to a landscape.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eViews of an environment can change many times during a day. Some of these ephemeral changes, such as unexpected thunderstorms, vibrant sunsets or radiant rainbows, are brief but may significantly alter the way people perceive and appreciate the landscape. Specifically, some of these dynamic changes can inspire awe and a sense of beauty that increases the value of the landscape.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eExisting research has tended to focus on appraisals of urban and rural scenes under conditions of sunshine and blue skies, with few studies considering how diurnal rhythms and fleeting meteorological processes might impact landscape appraisals. To fill this gap in understanding and go beyond purely ‘blue-sky’ landscape mentality, scientists from the u003ca href=” of Exeteru003c/au003e in the U.K. used the latest computer graphics to show carefully controlled landscape images of both urban and natural environments to more than 2,500 participants.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eParticipants were assigned randomly to the urban or the natural scenery group. Each participant was then shown six images depicting changes that may take place in the environment (urban or natural) during the course of a typical day. The researchers selected ephemeral phenomena that progressed from sunrise through to midday blue-skies (the control condition), on to a thunderstorm with visible lightning, followed by a rainbow, sunset, and then night-time with prominent moon and stars. This mix of diurnal changes and ephemeral phenomena was applied to each of the two landscapes.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe participants rated each image (from 0–10) on its beauty and ability to inspire awe and wonder in them. They were also asked how much they would be prepared to pay in order to visit this landscape (from a nearby location) and experience the moment depicted.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe results showed that, as might be expected, participants found the natural landscape more beautiful than the urban landscape. However, across both landscapes, sunrise, the presence of a rainbow, and sunset, all increased the aesthetic ratings. Sunset in the natural landscape was considered by participants as being the most beautiful scene of all.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eSimilarly, the natural landscapes were considered more awe-inspiring than the urban ones. Yet once again, the presence of ephemeral phenomena substantially modified these ratings. For the urban setting, all the ephemeral phenomena were associated with an increase in awe when compared to the blue-sky (control) condition, but to varying degrees. The presence of a rainbow was rated the most awe-inspiring event in the urban landscape.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCrucially, these changes were also behind variations in how the environments were valued. Participants were prepared to pay a premium of almost 10 per cent to visit a natural setting at sunrise compared to at midday under blue skies. They were prepared to pay a massive 41 percent more to visit a natural landscape to see a sunrise than to see a thunderstorm.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe research team said this kind of added value is normally attributed to more permanent features, such as scenic lakes or historic buildings. They suggested that encouraging people to experience sunsets and sunrises could help boost wellbeing, and might be used as part of green prescribing, where nature plays a therapeutic role in mental health treatment.:u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We’re all familiar with the urge to take a photo of a brilliant sunset or unexpected rainbow. The term ‘sunset’ has over 300 million tags on Instagram and people told us they’d be willing to pay a premium to experience these phenomena, but of course we can all experience them for free,” said study lead author Alex Smalley.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Our research indicates that getting up a bit earlier for sunrise or timing a walk to catch sunset could be well worth the effort – the ‘wow’ factor associated with these encounters might unlock small but significant bumps in feelings of beauty and awe, which could in turn have positive impacts for mental wellbeing.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe authors also noted how the occurrence of the phenomena they tested could vary greatly, based on where people live. Those on east-facing coastlines might find sunrise easier to see, whilst those in the west might more frequently experience sunset. Equally, thunderstorms may be more common in summer in the U.K., yet rainbows appear more often in winter.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Most of the phenomena we tested can be fleeting and unpredictable, and we think this novelty is partly behind the effects we’re seeing. Given their potential to change people’s experiences in both natural and urban landscapes, there could be real value in highlighting how and where these events might be experienced, particularly in towns and cities,” added Smalley.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe authors suggest that, in the same way standardized signs direct tourists to important features such as historical buildings, viewpoints and museums, they could also be used to show people where ephemeral phenomena, such as sunrises, sunsets and starry nights could best be enjoyed. This might challenge the typical representations of landscapes as permanent and unchanging, and help people to experience the benefits of the sense of beauty and awe inspired by witnessing grand but transient natural events.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:[email protected]”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Sunsets have a “wow” factor that adds value to landscapes”,”post_excerpt”:”Temporary natural events like sunsets that take place on a daily basis may be just as important when we attribute value to a landscape. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”sunsets-have-a-wow-factor-that-adds-value-to-landscapes”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 10:15:25″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 17:15:25″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20101443/shutterstock_746261982-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1235,”file”:”2023/01/shutterstock_746261982-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-300×145.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:145,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-1024×494.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:494,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-768×370.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:370,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-1536×741.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:741,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-2048×988.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:988,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”shutterstock_746261982-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”shutterstock_746261982.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Spending time in nature has been shown to benefit mental…”},{“ID”:1914624,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 16:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDue to climate change, extreme weather events such as u003ca href=” are becoming more frequent, longer, and more intense. For instance, in 2022, heatwaves reached unprecedented levels, killing over 15,000 people worldwide. Besides affecting humans, these extreme thermal events also have disastrous effects on wildlife. Since many animals are adapted to live in certain temperature ranges, prolonged exposure to extreme heat can cause massive die-offs, and thus disrupt a variety of ecosystems.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy using species data for most terrestrial vertebrates (33,548 species of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles) regarding recent exposures to heatwaves, along current distribution ranges and projections of climate change under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, a team of researchers led by u003ca href=” University of the Negevu003c/au003e in Israel has now predicted the effects of future extreme temperatures on land-based animals by the end of this century.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe analysis revealed that while thousands of species are likely to be regularly exposed to future heatwaves, the number of exposed species will become significantly larger under high-emissions scenarios.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“By 2099, under the highest greenhouse gas emission scenario, we estimate two in five species of all land-vertebrates will experience extreme thermal events with temperatures beyond their historical levels in at least half their distribution range,” said study lead author Gopal Murali, a postdoctoral fellow at the u003ca href=” of Arizonau003c/au003e, who conducted this research at Ben-Gurion.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We also found that by 2099 in this scenario, 3,773 species, or 11 percent of total land vertebrates are likely to face extreme thermal events during most of the year. However, a low-future emissions scenario greatly reduces animals’ exposure to heat extremes. In this scenario, just 6.1 percent of all land vertebrates will have most of their ranges exposed to extreme heat events, and none during most of the year.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe experts determined that amphibians and reptiles are much more at risk than other land-vertebrates, most likely due to their overall smaller distribution ranges, which may prevent them to relocate in areas less exposed to extreme temperatures. Interestingly, extreme temperatures will probably also substantially affect species in the drier regions of the globe, such as deserts, shrublands, and grasslands across North America, Africa, and Australia.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings have major implications for biodiversity conservation. “We need to start considering the impacts of extreme heat events when making conservation and land management decisions. The biodiversity crisis is upon us and many species may go extinct due to various human actions. If unchecked, climate change may soon become a final nail in their coffin. The time to act is now,” concluded senior author Uri Roll, an expert in Conservation Biology at Ben-Gurion.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Animals are increasingly threatened by heatwaves worldwide”,”post_excerpt”:”Since many animals are adapted to live in certain temperature ranges, prolonged exposure to extreme heat can cause massive die-offs”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”animals-are-increasingly-threatened-by-heatwaves-worldwide”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 09:55:25″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 16:55:25″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20095421/Heatwaves-scaled.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1931,”file”:”2023/01/Heatwaves-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Heatwaves-300×226.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:226,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Heatwaves-1024×772.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:772,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Heatwaves-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Heatwaves-768×579.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:579,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Heatwaves-1536×1158.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1158,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Heatwaves.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Due to climate change, extreme weather events such as heatwaves…”},{“ID”:1914622,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 07:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFor those wishing to see an African u003ca href=” species in the wild, a visit to South Africa would be well advised. This country stewards the largest number of rhinos in Africa, supporting 81 percent of the white rhinos (u003cemu003eCeratotherium simumu003c/emu003e) and 33 percent of the black rhinos (u003cemu003eDiceros bicornisu003c/emu003e) remaining on the continent. Until the past decade, the largest concentrations of these iconic mammals were found in South Africa’s state-run Kruger National Park.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHowever, just as tourists from all over the world visit this park to view the rhinos (among other species), poachers have been drawn there to kill the rhinos for their horns. The Kruger National Park has become a poaching hotspot and has seen devastating decreases in rhino numbers. Figures released in 2021 indicated 76 percent and 68 percent declines in the Park’s white and black rhino populations over the past decade, respectively.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn order to conserve these impressive species, the governments and conservation authorities in African countries where they occur have had to resort to drastic and innovative measures. Many rhinos have been moved out of national parks and protected areas, such as Kruger, to be rehomed in reserves in neighboring countries, or on privately held game farms. Populations of rhinos on private land, or on community land, have grown and have proved easier to protect from the ravages of poaching.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn a new review of the importance of private and communal lands to the future conservation of Africa’s rhinoceroses, scientists from the u003ca href=” of Helsinkiu003c/au003e in Finland, and the Universities of Stellenbosch and Nelson Mandela in South Africa, discuss the sustainability of such an approach in the longer term. In their report, published in u003ca href=” in Ecology and the Environmentu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e, the experts suggest that new strategies for ensuring the protection of these species are urgently needed.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Private and communal landowners in several southern and East African countries can generate revenues from wildlife tourism, trophy hunting and trade in live animals, making it financially viable to use their land to conserve wildlife rather than for farming livestock,” said study co-author Dr.u0026nbsp;Hayley Clements. “The result has been that hundreds of landowners conserve rhinos on their properties.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOver the past decade, as poaching has increased in national parks, wildlife agencies have become concerned that the species would be extirpated. As rhino numbers in national parks have decreased, the estimated number of rhinos on private land in South Africa has steadily increased. As a result of this shift, the proportion of the country’s white rhinos on private land increased from 25 percent in 2010 to 53 percent in 2021. This means that, collectively, private landholders in South Africa now support the largest number of white rhinos on the continent.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA similar pattern applies to the black rhinos in the country as well; approximately 25 percent are conserved on privately held lands. Rhinos on private farms, as well as on community-held lands, also represent significant proportions of the total rhino populations in other African countries, such as Namibia, Zimbabwe and Kenya, where poaching in national parks has taken a toll.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough this move to conserving rhinos outside the confines of national parks has undoubtedly reduced the damage wrought by poachers, it comes with significant costs that may make it unsustainable in future, unless new policies are adopted. For example, private game farms make an income from wildlife-based tourism and hunting, as well as from selling the meat and trophies from their wild animals. In South Africa, one-quarter of private owners of white rhinos offer trophy hunting, 45 percent trade in live rhinos, and 62 percent undertake wildlife-based tourism.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIf any of these activities was disallowed in future, the private owners would not make enough income to cover the expenses involved in keeping and protecting rhinos. Commonly, private owners need to employ anti-poaching units and other security measures to protect the animals on their properties, and the costs involved have increased in recent years. If economic conditions became tougher, with fuel and salary price hikes, or restrictions on tourists as during the Covid-19 pandemic, rhino conservation on these private or community lands would no longer be financially sustainable.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe cost-benefit ratio of conserving rhinos is changing, explained study co-author Dr.u0026nbsp;Dave Balfour. “Accelerating poaching has meant private rhino owners now spend on average US$150,000 per year on security measures. This is far more than state parks are able to spend per rhino or per unit area conserved. Combined with the generally smaller size of private rhino populations (in smaller areas averaging 100 kmu003csupu003e2u003c/supu003e), which likely makes them easier to protect than in places like Kruger (with an area of 20,000 kmu003csupu003e2u003c/supu003e), this spending on security means private rhino populations have suffered lower poaching rates than in some core state-run parks. But these rising security costs mean many landowners are not willing or able to continue conserving rhinos, with some choosing to sell their rhinos, often at a loss.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study authors state that it is imperative to find new ways of incentivizing the ownership of rhinos by private land owners and on community lands, if this important component of conservation is to continue.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The reality is that, at present, rhinos on private and communal lands in range states are the only major complement to state parks,” said the researchers. “It is therefore imperative to consider – in the context of high poaching pressure, a diminished live-rhino trade market, and a wildlife-based tourism industry devastated by the COVID-19 pandemic – how incentives can be structured to achieve rhino conservation objectives as opposed to intensive rhino management or disinvestment.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“It is important that future policy enables new incentives that compensate for rising security costs, encouraging rhino conservation on private and communal land,” noted study senior author Professor Enrico Di Minin.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“For example, could landowners that conserve rhinos in extensive systems qualify for a more favorable tax structure? Could they be eligible for carbon or the emerging biodiversity credits, or rhino bonds, given the role of rhinos in carbon cycling? Could they receive certifications for extensive management that increase the value of their wildlife-based tourism and hunting offerings? These are crucial questions that need to be addressed in order to support more sustainable conservation strategies for rhinos.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eMoreover, increased transparency by states about rhino numbers and their management is critical for understanding where and how best to conserve them. Availability of up-to-date information on rhino populations, poaching rates, and security costs can aid in identifying and quantifying long-term trends in rhino populations across land tenure types, inform their conservation, and help raise public awareness and support.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“If additional incentives are not enabled, we risk losing private and communal rhino custodians, and with them, half of the remaining African rhinos,” concluded Dr. Clements.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:[email protected]”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”More than half of Africa’s rhinos have private owners”,”post_excerpt”:”However, just as tourists from all over the world visit this park to view the rhinos (among other species), poachers have been drawn there to kill”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”more-than-half-of-africas-rhinos-have-private-owners”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 07:03:55″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 14:03:55″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20070339/Rhino-2-scaled.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1801,”file”:”2023/01/Rhino-2-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Rhino-2-300×211.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:211,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Rhino-2-1024×720.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:720,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Rhino-2-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Rhino-2-768×540.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:540,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Rhino-2-1536×1081.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1081,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Rhino-2.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”For those wishing to see an African rhinoceros species in…”},{“ID”:1914620,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 06:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 13:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study led by the u003ca href=” State Universityu003c/au003e (WSU) and the u003ca href=” National Park Serviceu003c/au003e has found that, even without hunting activities, humans seem to have a strong negative influence on the movement of wildlife in the Glacier National Park. The experts examined activity on hiking trails during and after a Covid-19 closure of the park. According to the results, humans often create a “landscape of fear” like other apex predators, significantly changing how animals use an area simply with their presence.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe scientists discovered that when human hikers were present, 16 out of 22 mammal species – including both predators and prey – changed when and where they accessed certain areas of the park. While some completely abandoned places they previously used, others used them less frequently and some shifting to more nocturnal activities in order to avoid humans.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“When the park was open to the public, and there were a lot of hikers and recreators using the area, we saw a bunch of changes in how animals were using that same area,” said study senior author Daniel Thornton, a wildlife ecologist at WSU. “The surprising thing is that there’s no other real human disturbance out there because Glacier is such a highly protected national park, so these responses really are being driven by human presence and human noise.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eInitially, the researchers also expected to find an effect called “human shielding,” when human presence causes some large predators to avoid a certain area, providing opportunities for smaller predators or even some prey species to use that area more frequently. However, the analysis revealed such an effect on a single species, the red fox, which was more present on and near hiking trails since its competitors, coyotes, generally avoided such areas when humans were using them.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eSpecies such as black bears, white-tailed deer, and elk showed a significant decline in the use of trails when the park was open, while others like the mule deer, the snowshoe hare, the grizzly bear, and the coyote decreased their daytime activities. Yet, a few species, including cougars, seemed largely indifferent to human presence.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough these findings suggest that low-impact recreation is quite concerning, future research is needed to assess whether it has negative effects on wildlife survival. “This study does not say that hiking is necessarily bad for wildlife, but it does have some impacts on spatiotemporal ecology, or how wildlife uses a landscape and when,” said study lead author Alissa Anderson, a resent WSU master’s graduate. “Maybe they are not on the trails as much, but they’re using different places, and how much does that actually impact species’ ability to survive and thrive in a place, or not? There are a lot of questions about how this actually plays into population survival.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“It’s obviously important that people are able to get out there, but there might be a level of which that starts to be problematic. Some additional research could help get a better understanding of that and help develop some guidelines and goals,” Thornton concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” Scientific Reportsu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Humans create a “landscape of fear” for wildlife”,”post_excerpt”:”humans seem to have a strong negative influence on the movement of wildlife in the Glacier National Park”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”humans-create-a-landscape-of-fear-for-wildlife”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 06:35:40″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 13:35:40″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20063437/Wildlife-4-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:2195,”file”:”2023/01/Wildlife-4-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-300×257.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:257,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-1024×878.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:878,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-768×659.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:659,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-1536×1317.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1317,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-2048×1756.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1756,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Wildlife-4-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Wildlife-4.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A new study led by the Washington State University (WSU)…”},{“ID”:1914618,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 05:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 12:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eMany people buy lottery tickets regularly in the hope that, at one point, they will win the grand prize. Despite the significant financial cost of playing the lottery numbers frequently, the possible payoff is large enough to make it worthwhile. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to a recent study led by the u003ca href=” of Michiganu003c/au003e (U-M), animals that live in highly variable environments often play a similar lottery when it comes to their Darwinian fitness, or how well they are able to pass their genes to future generations. For instance, the experts found that u003ca href=” squirrelsu003c/au003e which gambled at the reproductive game outperformed those that didn’t, even if it cost them in the short run.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn years when food is abundant, natural selection favors female squirrels that have large litters. However, these so-called “mast years” – characterized by a significant boom in their main food source (seeds from the cones of white spruce trees) – occur only every four to seven years. Nonetheless, many squirrels have large litters each year, hoping that it will turn out to be a mast year.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We were surprised to find that some females have large litters in years when there won’t be enough food for their babies to survive the winter,” said study lead author Lauren Petrullo, a postdoctoral fellow in Biopsychology at U-M. “Because it’s biologically expensive to produce offspring, we wanted to know why these females make what appears to be an error in their reproductive strategy. There is a constant tug-of-war between the trees and the squirrels at our study site, with each player trying to deceive the other for its own fitness gain.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy quantifying the reproduction of female squirrels during both food booms and busts, the researchers discovered differences in their fitness according to whether they gambled with their reproductive strategy or not.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhile some squirrels “played it safe” by keeping their litter sizes small each year, those that had large litters even when food was scarce enjoyed greater lifetime fitness if they managed to experience a mast year. However, squirrels are not guaranteed to always win by using this strategy.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“In some ways, this strategy of gambling with litter sizes is like playing with fire,” Petrullo explained. “Because the average squirrel lifespan is 3.5 years and masts only happen every four to seven, a female could potentially be sabotaging her fitness by having too many babies in low-food years, hoping for a mast when she may die before she ever gets to experience a mast at all. This could be pretty costly.” Yet, the cost of not gambling at all in the game of reproduction could be insurmountable for squirrels that miss their shot at the jackpot.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eScientists are still unsure exactly how the squirrels are often able to forecast food production. A possible explanation could be that the animals may be eating parts of the spruce trees which affect their physiology and alter the number of offspring they produce.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“This is exciting because it suggests that squirrels are eavesdropping on the trees, but we still have much more to do to solve this puzzle,” concluded senior author Ben Dantzer, a professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at U-M.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Squirrels gamble to increase evolutionary fitness”,”post_excerpt”:”For instance, the experts found that red squirrels which gambled at the reproductive game outperformed those that didn’t, even if it cost them in the short run.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”squirrels-gamble-to-increase-evolutionary-fitness”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 05:09:17″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 12:09:17″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20050834/Squirrel-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1843,”file”:”2023/01/Squirrel-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Squirrel-300×216.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:216,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Squirrel-1024×737.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:737,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Squirrel-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Squirrel-768×553.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:553,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Squirrel-1536×1106.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1106,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Squirrel-2048×1475.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1475,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Squirrel-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Squirrel-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Squirrel-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Squirrel-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Squirrel-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Squirrel-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Squirrel-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Squirrel.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Many people buy lottery tickets regularly in the hope that,…”},{“ID”:1914615,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2023-01-20 04:30:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-20 11:30:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003ePlants often have to cope with a variety of environmental stressors, such as lack of nutrients or high salinity. In a new study published in the journal u003ca href=” Agricultural Science u0026amp; Technologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e, scientists examined how habanero u003ca href=” (u003cemu003eCapsicum chinenseu003c/emu003e) change the levels of their natural compounds under stress conditions.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHabaneros are prized for their unique flavor, combining a citrusy and smoky taste with an extra-hot kick. While their pungency comes from capsaicinoids, peppers also contain a variety of vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and other metabolites. These components contribute not only to flavor, but also to the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of peppers.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough habaneros are an important crop in Mexico, the environmental conditions in their habitat are far from optimal, due to low levels of nitrogen and phosphorous and high levels of salt in the soil where they grow.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eTo evaluate the effect of these conditions on thousands of metabolites in the fruits, the experts grew peppers under five different conditions: control, low phosphorous, low nitrogen, medium salinity, and high salinity. Afterwards, the peppers were harvested at three growth stages, and extracts from them were purified and analyzed by mass spectrometry.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe analysis revealed that metabolite changes were most evident in ripe fruit, and that, while nitrogen deficiency reduced the concentration of some metabolites but raised that of others, phosphorous deficiency lowered metabolite diversity. According to the scientists, this loss of metabolite diversity could make harvested peppers less resilient to pathogens and pests.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eMoreover, the experiments helped the researchers identify a salinity threshold above which metabolites start to change because the plants can no longer counteract the effects of excess salt.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs climate change intensifies stress on a wide variety of crops worldwide, insight into metabolic adjustments will be crucial to help scientist safeguard these plants, the experts concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e-—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy Andrei Ionescu, Earth.com Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”How do habaneros respond to environmental stress?”,”post_excerpt”:”Habaneros are prized for their unique flavor, combining a citrusy and smoky taste with an extra-hot kick”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”how-do-habaneros-respond-to-environmental-stress”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-20 05:02:23″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-20 12:02:23″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Ionescu”,”author_url”:” alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/20045631/Peppers-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1601,”file”:”2023/01/Peppers-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Peppers-300×188.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:188,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Peppers-1024×640.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Peppers-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Peppers-768×480.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Peppers-1536×960.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:960,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Peppers-2048×1281.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1281,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Peppers-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Peppers-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Peppers-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Peppers-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Peppers-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Peppers-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Peppers-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Peppers.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Plants often have to cope with a variety of environmental…”},{“ID”:1911169,”post_author”:”13″,”post_date”:”2023-01-19 16:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-19 23:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eLightning may influence the composition of tropical forests, according to a new study led by Steve Yanoviak of the u003ca href=” Tropical Research Instituteu003c/au003e. The results of the study suggest that the tropical trees which are most likely to be struck are also the most resilient to u003ca href=” strikes.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOver the course of several years, a team of lightning scientists and tropical field biologists analyzed the effects of lightning strikes on the Panama Canal forests of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers estimate that lightning strikes tropical trees millions of times a year. Considering that lightning is expected to become more frequent in the coming years, the experts set out to investigate how susceptibility to lightning may vary across tree species.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study revealed that some types of trees were more resilient to lightning strikes than others. For example, palm trees were the most likely to die from lightning damage. Interestingly, the trees that were struck the most often were also the most likely to recover.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The tree species that were most frequently damaged by lightning tended to be the same species that were most capable of surviving lightning strikes,” said study co-author Evan Gora. “This suggests that lightning is an important selective force with implications for the ecology and evolution of tropical forests.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to the researchers, the most lightning-resistant tree species had a few things in common including denser wood, larger vessels for transporting water, and leaves that were richer in nitrogen.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Trees with denser wood tend to live longer and store more carbon, so finding this trait correlated with lightning tolerance implies an interesting compensatory mechanism where greater lightning frequency could actually favor species that are better at storing carbon,” explained study co-author Jeannine Richards.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe fact that tree species with a greater capacity for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also seem to more capable of surviving lightning damage comes as a welcome discovery as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The results of this study are especially interesting because they suggest that changes in lightning strike frequency can influence the composition of tropical forests over the long term,” said Yanoviak.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=” Plantsu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003e-u003c/emu003eu003cemu003e–u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Sextonu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”In tropical forests, lightning strikes the most resilient trees”,”post_excerpt”:”The results of the study suggest that the tropical trees which are most likely to be struck are also the most resilient to lightning strikes. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”in-tropical-forests-lightning-strikes-the-most-resilient-trees”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-19 16:37:02″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-19 23:37:02″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Sexton”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/08/24110132/Tropical-trees-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1818,”file”:”2022/08/Tropical-trees-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-300×213.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:213,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-1024×727.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:727,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-768×545.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:545,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-1536×1091.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1091,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-2048×1454.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1454,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Tropical-trees-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Tropical-trees.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Lightning may influence the composition of tropical forests, according to…”},{“ID”:1914612,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2023-01-19 12:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2023-01-19 19:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eNot only is the starry night sky a thing of great beauty and cultural significance worldwide, but also life on Earth evolved under conditions that saw sunlit days and dark nights, illuminated only by gentle light from the stars and moon. Today, the night skies are seldom dark, but instead are lit with the glow of scattered anthropogenic light that pollutes the atmosphere. And, according to the results of a new study, the stars are rapidly becoming invisible to the human eye due to the presence of this artificial light.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe brightening of the night sky in this way is known as skyglow, and it has increased exponentially over much of the past century. However, it is difficult to measure the extent of this anthropogenic light accurately because the satellites that record the radiance globally are insensitive to wavelengths of light given off by modern LED lighting fixtures. This led Christopher Kyba from the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, and colleagues from the National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona, to take a different approach to quantifying the changes in night sky brightness over the past decade.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers used the online platform of “u003ca href=” at Nightu003c/au003e”u0026nbsp;to ask citizen scientists from around the world to assess the appearance of the night sky in their location. The participants were provided with a set of star maps at different levels of light pollution, and asked to select the one that best matched the night sky they could see. This method relied on the naked-eye observations of stars between 2011 and 2022, and quantified stellar visibility to observers on 51,351 different occasions.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis approach used the human visual system as a direct sensor, and produced an estimate of the naked eye limiting magnitude (NELM), the visual apparent size of the faintest star that can be seen. This measure is related to skyglow because, as background light levels increase, faint stars become invisible to the naked eye.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings of the research, published in the journal u003ca href=” indicate that the night skies are rapidly getting brighter due to artificial light. According to the researchers, the change in the number of visible stars reported by Globe at Night participants is equivalent to a 9.6 percent per year annual increase in sky brightness, averaged over the locations of participants.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis means that the sky’s brightness would double in less than eight years in these locations, and that a child born in an area with 250 visible stars, would be able to see only 100 of those stars when he or she turned 18 years. This increase is much higher than estimates of the evolution of artificial light emissions (around 2 percent yearly) based on radiance measurements taken by satellites.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eUnfortunately, the only satellite instruments that currently monitor sky brightness over the whole Earth have limited resolution and sensitivity, and cannot detect light with wavelengths below 500 nm – modern LED lights usually have an emission peak between 400 and 500 nm. The satellites also do not detect light emissions that are horizontal, such as those emanating from windows or signage, which also contributes to skyglow.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThere are effective methods for reducing light pollution, and many of them also reduce the consumption of electricity. Although they have been implemented to some extent in some cities and local areas, they have not seen widespread acceptance or use to date. However, people are becoming increasingly aware of the potential negative effects of light pollution and may influence policy makers to implement control measures in future.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIncreased artificial lighting has been shown to affect several biological and physiological processes in animals and plants. For example, a 2021u0026nbsp;study in u003cemu003eScience Advancesu003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;demonstrated the detrimental impacts of street lighting on local insect populations, and another in 2022 highlighted the harmful effects of nighttime lighting on ecosystems across Europe. In addition to its environmental consequences, skyglow limits human observation of starry skies and the Milky Way, and has changed the appearance of the night skies in inhabited regions all over the world.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers acknowledge that their dataset derived from citizen scientists is biased towards observers in Europe and North America, and most of the data comes from inhabited urban areas. They fear that the problem of increasing skyglow will be even greater in developing countries, where the observers are few and far between.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn a related Perspective commentary on the study by Kyba and colleagues,u0026nbsp;Fabio Falchi and Salvador Bará say, “Perhaps the most important message that the scientific community should glean from the Kybau0026nbsp;u003cemu003eet al.u003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;study is that light pollution is increasing, notwithstanding the countermeasures purportedly put into operation to limit it. Awareness must greatly increase for artificial light at night to be perceived not as an always-positive thing, but as the pollutant it really is.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”The visibility of stars is deteriorating rapidly, despite (or perhaps because of) the introduction of LEDs in outdoor lighting applications,” wrote the researchers. “Existing lighting policies are not preventing increases in skyglow, at least on continental and global scales. The loss of the starry night is an unprecedented loss for all cultures.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:[email protected]”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=” Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCheck us out on u003ca href=” a free app brought to you by Eric Ralls and Earth.com.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Star visibility is deteriorating due to light pollution”,”post_excerpt”:” life on Earth evolved under conditions that saw sunlit days and dark nights, illuminated only by gentle light from the stars and moon”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”star-visibility-is-deteriorating-due-to-light-pollution”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2023-01-19 13:05:32″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2023-01-19 20:05:32″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:” Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=” srcset=” 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2023/01/19130505/Night-sky-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1682,”file”:”2023/01/Night-sky-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Night-sky-300×197.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:197,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Night-sky-1024×673.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:673,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Night-sky-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Night-sky-768×505.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:505,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Night-sky-1536×1009.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1009,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Night-sky-2048×1346.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1346,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Night-sky-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Night-sky-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Night-sky-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Night-sky-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Night-sky-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Night-sky-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Night-sky-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Night-sky.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Not only is the starry night sky a thing of…”}]}}},”page”:”/news/[slug]”,”query”:{“slug”:”forests-face-threats-from-multiple-industries”},”buildId”:”PKDSWtUY8J-J0W_-JwJzB”,”isFallback”:false,”gssp”:true,”appGip”:true,”scriptLoader”:[]}

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Most Popular

Get The Latest Updates

Subscribe To Our Weekly Newsletter

No spam, notifications only about new products, updates.

Categories

On Key

Related Posts

‘छुट्टी के दौरान बीमार होने की सूचना देना भरोसे की बात है’ | स्वास्थ्य

क्या आप इतने लंबे समय से छुट्टी का इंतजार कर रहे हैं, आप बीमार हो जाएंगे! कानून के अनुसार, आपको तब अपने नियोक्ता को बीमार

जोआओ पेड्रो के लिए स्थानांतरण विवरण – स्पोरक्स

जोआओ पेड्रो के लिए स्थानांतरण बयान स्पोरक्सGoogle समाचार ऐप में सभी संबंधित समाचार दिखाएं

1 फरवरी से इन फोन्स पर काम करना बंद कर देगा WhatsApp! यहां स्मार्टफोन की सूची दी गई है – चेक करें [01.02.2023]

1 फरवरी 2023 से कई फोन पर काम करना बंद कर देगा WhatsApp! व्हाट्सएप – फ्री इंस्टेंट मैसेंजर – लगभग सभी स्मार्टफोन पर उपलब्ध है।

पाकिस्तान मस्जिद विस्फोट: घातक हमले के पीछे क्या है? – bbc.com

पाकिस्तान मस्जिद विस्फोट: घातक हमले के पीछे क्या है? bbc.com पाकिस्तान आत्मघाती हमला: मरने वालों की संख्या बढ़ी सीटीवी न्यूज पाकिस्तान मस्जिद बमबारी: अधिकारी जांच