Scientists are conducting a trial with healthy women to see if a gel containing the drug tamoxifen could prevent cancer in the first place (file photo). A gel that is rubbed on the skin every day could reduce the risk of breast cancer. The clear and odorless gel contains a form of the anti-cancer drug tamoxifen, which has been used for years to treat women with the disease by lowering the levels of the hormone estrogen, which can help some cancers grow. Now scientists are conducting a trial with healthy women to see if a gel containing the medicine can prevent cancer. The theory is that the gel will reduce breast density and slow the rate at which healthy breast cells grow, because it will starve them of the estrogen they need to keep multiplying. At least one in four pre-menopausal women in the United Kingdom has dense breast tissue, which according to studies can increase the risk of a tumor sixfold. This means that they have larger amounts of milk glands, milk channels and connective tissue. – the fibrous substance that keeps everything in its place. On a mammogram (an x-ray of the chest) dense tissue appears as a solid white area that is difficult to see through, making it more difficult to detect potential cancer growth. Breasts that are less dense have more adipose tissue, which appears as dark and transparent – making it easier to identify tumors. Tamoxifen can also help in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. According to Imperial College London, the breast cancer medicine tamoxifen can also help treat pancreatic cancer. In studies on mice published in the EMBO report, scientists discovered that tamoxifen is changing the environment around the tumor, so it is less able to invade and spread other tissues – and more likely to die. Pancreatic cancer is notoriously difficult to treat, with less than 1 percent of patients surviving for ten years or longer. Beast density is usually inherited but decreases with age as they age; more of the tissue changes into later life in fat. It is not clear why the risk of cancer is increased in people with dense breast tissue, but a theory is that it is simply due to the higher number of cells in the breast. In short, there is more chance that cancer mutations develop and if they do, the cells feed the estrogen that is already present in the body. Researchers have discovered that tamoxifen can have a significant effect on the composition of breast tissue. A 2011 study by Queen Mary University in London, involving nearly 1,000 women with high breast density, who used tamoxifen tablets every day for up to 18 months, discovered that almost half saw density density drop by more than 10%. . As a result, they had 60 percent less chance of getting cancer. Tamoxifen blocks the effects of estrogen by binding to cells in breast tissue and preventing the hormone from going & # 39; and the cell multiplies. But tamoxifen tablets can have debilitating side effects, from nausea and hot flushes to blood clots and an increased risk of uterine cancer. Many women must remain on the drug for five years after remission, but it is estimated that half stops before it is taken, rather than because of the side effects.

In the current lawsuit, which is currently under way in hospitals in the US, Germany and Spain, 330 women aged between 35 and 75 fit the tamoxifen gel or a placebo on their breasts daily (file photo). The gel form is probably much safer because it impregnates only breast tissue, while tablets spread around the body. In the current study – underway in hospitals in the US, Germany and Spain – 330 women aged 35 to 75 years old will be given the tamoxifen- gel (BHR-700), or a placebo, daily on their breasts. The women all have dense breast tissue but are free from cancer. After a year they will have a different X-ray to measure the effects on the tissue density. Results should be available next year. Dr. Kotryna Temcinaite, from the charity Breast Cancer Now, says: "The use of tamoxifen in the form of a gel to reduce the risk of breast cancer is a really exciting prospect and can cause the side effects compared to taking the drug orally. & # 39; We look forward to the results of this study. & # 39; Can new gene & # 39; atlas & # 39; help defeat fragile bones? Researchers have a & # 39; atlas & # 39; composed of genes that are related to low bone density to address osteoporosis or fragile bones. The Canadian study evaluated data from 426,000 people and identified 518 genetic variants (301 of which were newly discovered) that affect the development of the condition, a common age problem that increases the risk of fractures. Writing in the journal Nature Genetics, the scientists said that identifying so many genes implies a great promise for the development of previous tests for the disease and new, targeted drug therapies to treat it. Joining Dry January cuts the amount of alcohol peopl e drink even months later, researchers at the University of Sussex report. They found that the drinking days decreased on average from 4.3 to 3.3 per week – even in August – while the number of units consumed during the drinking days fell from 8.6 to 7.1. Cholesterol rises by 20% after Christmas.Christmas overindulgence causes a peak in cholesterol levels of up to 20%, a study of 25,000 Danes found.Nine in ten people in the General Population Study of Copenhagen had an elevated cholesterol level – which can lead to a heart attack and a stroke – during this period. The authors of the study suggest that patients with high cholesterol levels should be re-assessed at this time to assess whether they really have a problem.

Christmas overindulgence causes a peak in cholesterol levels of up to 20 percent, a study of 25,000 Danes found (file photo) Tiny Tweaks Measure your waistline to stay motivated to practice. A study in the journal Cell Metabolism showed 12 weeks of training on the bicycle reduced abdominal fat in people with obesity. Since muscle growth through exercise causes weight gain, measuring your waist gives a better idea of ​​progress, researchers said. Under the weather Health problems worsened due to cold weather. This week: Arthritis pain & # 39; We see more people looking for aches and pains in the winter & # 39 ;, says Tim Allardyce, a physiotherapist of Surrey Physio in Mitcham. & # 39; If the temperature drops, especially when the weather is humid, then cases of arthritis pain and joint stiffness are rising. The joints need to warm up, just like an old car, and this takes longer in the cold, so you can feel stiff at the beginning of the day, "he says.

Tim Allardyce, a physiotherapist from Surrey Physio in Mitcham, said that cases of arthritis pain and joint stiffness increase during the cold weather (file photo) & # 39; We also tend to move less in the winter – driving to the shops instead of walking, for example – and immobility causes the joints to become stiff. As the days darken, the vitamin D values ​​also decrease. He suggests moving, going out for at least 15 minutes walking and taking a vitamin D supplement, or eating more vitamin D heavy foods such as oily fish. Size it up How big are the bits that you can not see? The human stomach is pear-shaped and about 30 cm long (the size of a large plate) with a relaxed volume of about 200 ml. But it can stretch to catch four liters of food. It is far removed from the soft, limp structure that you would expect, rather muscular and elastic. This helps to process the food as the walls contract and relax to stir and break down along with enzymes. Spoon of medicines

The Slow Control 10s fork should slow down the food and vibrate and flash as a warning to let you slow down. The ingenious cutlery on the market. This week: Slow Control 10s Fork (£ 35.92) CLAIM: This is meant to slow down your food by telling you when to put your food in your mouth. The fork has a built-in sensor: if you eat too fast – fork for mouth all ten seconds – it will vibrate and flash as a warning to slow down.EXPERT VERDICT: & # 39; It is largely an expensive gimmick & # 39 ;, says Sarah Ballis, a specialist dietician at The Harley Street Clinic in London. I can imagine that I am embarrassed to use this in public because it is much clearer than other portion control strategies, such as using smaller cutlery, drinking more water with meals or eating a smaller plate. "Under the microscope – TV presenter and driver Jodie Kidd, 40 answers our health quiz

Jodie Kidd, in the photo, said her vices & # 39; a delicious piece of cheese with a large glass of red wine & # 39; contain. Can you go up the stairs? Yes. I have always lived a very active lifestyle outdoors, whether it is sports, horse riding or vegetables in my garden. And I started to go to the gym – I always avoid it like the plague, but when I approached my 40s, I had to try again. I really enjoy it now. Do you get five a day? Absolutely, I grow as many of my own vegetables as possible. I cook all over again and I love making new dishes: doing TV & # 39; s MasterChef in 2014 helped me understand how different flavors go together with different textures. All vices? A treat is a nice piece of cheese with a large glass of red wine. I take elderberry extract for immune defenses, because it is the winter sore season. And when I travel a lot, I take sachets of Emergen-C – a powder that stimulates the immune system. I am also in teas with antioxidant properties, such as white tea and Pu-erh [a fermented Chinese tea].Worst injury or illness? When I was filming in Nepal in 2009 for the I Believe In Miracles of the BBC, I had to be seduced with a cruel strain of listeria. Have you been depressed? I began to suffer from severe anxiety when I was modeling my teenage years. I did not sleep well because I had a freakish schedule with long hours. I had sweaty hands, my appetite disappeared and I thought I was going crazy. The beta-blockers prescribed by my doctor left me in a fog and after a complete panic attack during the Milan Fashion Week I never did a new catwalk. Only when I started seeing the fear expert Charles Linden more than 15 years ago did I understand what my body was doing. He taught me healthier coping techniques. Married alternative therapies? I use flower remedies to keep fear at bay. I also see homeopaths and I believe in the power of crystals – they help me calm down. Can I handle pain? I am pretty resilient. I think it's over the years that you fall off your horses and you're called to go back, even with a broken rib or collarbone! Sleep well, pretty good these days. It is light off before 10 pm and I am sleeping for eight hours. Every phobia? Many, including heights and elevator doors that do not open quickly enough. Do you want to live forever? The most awful thing is that you are not close to the people you love. Baldea Your Life by Jodie Kidd and Amélie Khellaf-Govett is issued by DK for £ 16.99.