A Brexit without agreement will create serious problems for companies in Northern Ireland and force the Republic of Ireland to build border inspection posts, a report said.

Companies will have "limited scope for maneuver" as they will face a set of export controls, inspections and declarations, according to the report commissioned by the US Department of Transportation. Northern Ireland's economy and published this week.

According to its authors, Eric Pickett and Michael Lux, lawyers specializing in European and international customs law, the reflection on the challenges posed by the UK to the EU without agreement was disappointing.

"This confirms in particular the concern of the Northern Ireland Civil Service regarding the impact of EU tariffs on food exports to Ireland and Ireland. the ability of micro and small businesses with no experience in customs procedures and operations to continue exporting to Ireland, "said a cover note. More than 80% of small Northern Irish exporters trade only with the Republic.

The study indicated that Ireland should establish inspection posts near Northern Ireland to monitor trade in animal and food products, thus evoking a hard border that has alarmed politicians and police chiefs who worry about attacks by dissident republicans.

The report indicates that the use of technologies such as electronic monitoring could be expanded, but does not eliminate the need for physical inspections. The United Kingdom and the EU could also request an exemption from World Trade Organization rules imposing duties and checks, but that would probably be temporary.

The EU has strict rules on animal and food control at border inspection posts near the point of entry. The existing posts in Ireland at Dublin Airport, Dublin Port and Shannon Airport are more than 100 km from the border. "As a result, Ireland will need to establish BIPS systems closer to the border," the report says.

The results of this inquiry were a stark reminder that it was not easy to solve the Irish border problem that had contradicted the UK's attempt to leave the EU and posed a dilemma for Conservative Party leadership candidates. who wanted to replace Theresa May.

The report notes that Switzerland and the countries of the European Economic Area benefit from a derogation from the inspection rules, but that is because they have reached an agreement with l & # 39; EU. "The problem is that in a non-agreement scenario, this option is not available."

Boris Johnson, Andrea Leadsom, Dominic Raab and Esther McVey promised that if they won the Conservative presidency, they would pull the UK out of the EU on Oct. 31, that an agreement be in place or not.

This week's report follows a series of warnings about the impact of a Brexit without an agreement on Northern Ireland. David Sterling, the head of his civil service, wrote to local political parties in March saying that it could undermine security and aggravate unemployment.

Leo Varadkar, a member of the board of directors, said Tuesday that it would be a "terrible political calculation mistake" for anyone in London to think that a new prime minister would urge the EU to renegotiate the agreement of withdrawal. "It's really misunderstanding how the EU works." May, he added, was not a bad negotiator and had got the best deal possible for the UK.