Aristotle concludes that there was no form of government superior to another and that the determining variable was in the ruler, noting that the ruler – no matter how good he was – always ended up becoming a tyrant if he lacked external controls.
Contemporary thinkers like Jason Brenan, in the recent book Against democracy, reflect on the functioning of current democracies, proposing that, in order to improve their quality, not everyone should have the right to vote, since not all citizens are trained to make complex decisions and vote driven by ideologies, sympathies and emotions conditioned by propaganda or disinterest (the Brexi, the procs or Hitler are examples of how decisions made democratically can be disastrous for the people). Brenan also proposes that governments should be composed only of people of proven solvency and not of upstarts or office workers as usual.
Democracy is based on universal and secret voting, a free press, and an independent judiciary.
Pablo Iglesias is right when he points out the imperfections of our democracy, only that those weaknesses are true of all democracies and for reasons that are quite different from those adduced by the vice president podemita.
For the translation of votes into seats to be truly egalitarian, each person would have to be resolved under the formula, one vote; and, if no clear winners are obtained, resort to a second round with the two most voted candidates, which will avoid having to resort to agreements against nature like the ones we see.
Another weakness is the partitocracy, where the candidates do not represent the citizen, but rather their parties. The voters have to vote a list, which means that the candidates are not due to the elector, but to the head of the party, who is the one who puts them in the place where they can be elected. The parties – as their name indicates – serve to split, not to unite society.
The government controls are chimeras, the government does not account to anyone except in electoral periods, where it tends to lie about its intentions and propaganda blurs previous breaches. Democracy needs controls where each closely watches the other, as the Athenians pointed out. Power is intoxicating and the human being is susceptible to perverting himself, making a democrat a tyrant in two news programs.
To avoid this there are the political opposition, the media and the judges, but what happens if the government and the opposition control the career of the judges and want to control the media? What happens when our sovereignty depends on policies dictated to us from outside? Can anyone believe that with the debt that democracies have they can be independent?
Learn about our entire newsletter offer
We have created a selection of content for you so that you can comfortably receive it in your email. Discover our new service.
Because of the Brexit, many financial service providers have withdrawn their employees from London. In the meantime, the British capital has been replaced by Amsterdam as the largest stock market in Europe. But an expert is now warning against writing off Great Britain entirely in this regard.
Despite ambiguities in the Brexit agreement with the EU, an expert warns against writing off the UK as a financial center. “Despite Brexit, London remains one of the most important global financial centers,” says Frank Eich, a former advisor to the British central bank.
In the western hemisphere only New York like London offers a “breadth and depth of specialist knowledge and skills”, such as insurance, investment banking, legal services, venture capital or fintechs. The British capital lacks the large US market. “In return, London is probably more diverse – for example, a leader in the Islamic financial world – and more internationally focused.”
The Brexit, which was concluded at the beginning of the year, is putting the EU under pressure to increasingly handle specialized financial services previously provided in London within the Community. Because of the Brexit, numerous institutes have moved thousands of employees from London to EU cities such as Frankfurt, Paris or Dublin. By March, London and Brussels want to agree on the mutual recognition of standards – called equivalence.
No more “passport” rights after Brexit
With Brexit, British financial service providers lost their “passport” rights, which enabled them to operate in the EU internal market without additional regulatory approval. Therefore, British companies either have to meet the regulatory requirements of each individual EU member state or rely on the EU to judge the British regulatory framework as equivalent.
Most recently, London was ousted by Amsterdam as the largest stock market in Europe. “Since European investors were no longer able to trade shares on the London Stock Exchange without a financial services agreement between the UK and the EU, trading activities had to be relocated to an EU member state,” said Eich, who now works for the management consultancy Economicsense. The development was inevitable. “But there is more to a financial market than just trading stocks on an electronic platform.”
British central bank governor Andrew Bailey recently warned the EU that it would have to pay a heavy price if it wanted to cut London off.
It won’t be long before the Sa Pobla Potato harvest be in full swing. Around the 15th of March the big digging of the Mallorca tubers traditionally begins in the municipality in the interior of the island, “this year maybe a little later because of the weather”, says Joan Company, managing director of the local cooperative Esplet However, farmers are not as optimistic about the months ahead as they usually are – even though the harvest is likely to be plentiful. The problem: As a result of Brexit, the traditional potato buyer Great Britain has been a third country since December 31. New export regulations are likely to make sales to the UK more difficult – and mean additional costs for Mallorca’s farmers.
“We have been delivering potatoes to Great Britain from Mallorca since 1924, you have to imagine that,” says the Joan Company. You can tell the Mallorcan how much he is concerned with the subject. Not that he is really afraid of losing British customers. “They are waiting for our deliveries and want their goods as usual.” But the UK’s exit from the EU is a change that the potato farmers in Sa Pobla will have to adapt to, for better or worse. “We are not unmotivated, but we are excited.”
The good news is that on potatoes no additional taxes collected when they cross the EU border to Great Britain. One problem has not yet been resolved: “According to the new regulations, Great Britain can no longer export seeds to the EU. But a lot of the potatoes we sell to the British are of a British variety, “says Company. It may sound paradoxical that Mallorca has been growing the British “own” potatoes for years. “But that’s quite normal in times of globalization. Every country has its own varieties, and if you want to meet the tastes of the customers there, you have to give them what they know and like. “
Specifically, it is the variety Maris Peer, which is considered a real export hit – after all, a good 5,000 tonnes of it per year have been transported from Sa Pobla to Great Britain. For comparison: the total volume of the potato harvest in Sa Pobla amounts to 16,000 to 18,000 tons. The British, with their Maris peer preference, are among the main buyers, followed by Scandinavians, Poles and Germans, who in turn prefer their own varieties. Numerous British potatoes are still ripening in Mallorca’s soil. But in the coming year there should be no more usable Maris peer seeds. “We hope it will be up then there will be agreements between the governments, “said Company.
And if not? “Then we have to somehow reinvent or look for other ways“said the cooperative chairman. He does not believe that jobs will be lost as long as there is demand in the UK.” How things will really go cannot be determined until the time comes. “
Another hurdle will already become noticeable in the everyday life of farmers in the coming weeks. “Since Brexit, British legislation has made demands special plant protection certificate, which we have to get issued by the Ministry of Agriculture for every trip. That definitely means more bureaucracy. Then there are the customs controls at the EU borders. “
The worries that Mallorca’s potatoes might not meet the special plant protection regulations of Great Britain have been put out of the way by the responsible politicians here and there in February. Originally, the British government stipulated that only potatoes from regions were allowed into the country in whose soil it was proven that no specimens of two specially mentioned species of roundworm could be found.
“These roundworms can very well be found on the islands, but not in the plots where potatoes are grown. There the earth complies with the conditions that the United Kingdom has always considered good “, said the Balearic Agriculture Minister Mae de la Concha at the beginning of February. With the support of the Spanish central government, she managed to get one Compromise with British colleagues to negotiate. “We are now able to get the certificate, but it means paperwork, time and logistics expenditure, and in the end, of course, costs for us,” sums up Joan Company. But he does not want to be discouraged: “It is a change , but not the end of export. “
A group of 18 Civil Guard agents and a scanner. It is the operation that the Gran Canaria airport has to check the luggage of all non-EU travelers who enter the island by plane. This situation has not created problems because non-European international arrivals – mainly from Africa – are “acceptable” for these personnel. However, the scenario will change dramatically when mobility restrictions are lifted. At that time, the Canary Islands aspired to recover its five million British tourists, but after the United Kingdom left the European Union, travelers arriving from this country must undergo controls to enter Spain, like all other foreign passengers to the Schengen area.
This new scenario will cause a “collapse” in Canarian airports, predicts the Unified Association of Civil Guards (AUGC) if the staff that carries out this task is not increased because “there are not enough agents for all this control that must be carried out” . He points out that «if in these two months of validity of the Brexi Chaos has not occurred, it is precisely because the pandemic has prevented the arrival of tourists. This organization also points out that when the traffic of 10 or 15 daily planes in the United Kingdom recovers, “it is not just that a visitor has to wait four or five hours for his suitcase to pass through the control, but rather The entire chain that the tourist follows until they reach their accommodation will be affected, such as queues for buses waiting outside the airport or delays in entering the hotels. If a collapse occurs, the AUGC reiterates, “it will be the responsibility of the Ministries of Transport and the Interior for not anticipating this situation despite the warnings that have been sent to them since before the United Kingdom left the Union.”
The main difference with respect to the current status is that all luggage, both hand luggage and that which travels in the hold, must pass the “tax receipt of the autonomous community” carried out by the Civil Guard. Union citizens are exempt from declaring what they carry in their suitcases, a circumstance that no longer applies to British citizens, who will not be able to import anything prohibited by the EU without declaring it ‘from diamonds to a cheese sandwich’.
To avoid reaching this situation of collapse, the AUGC demands that the number of civil guards in the airports of the Canary Islands be increased by 300, in such a way that the 18 in Gran Canaria rise to 100; the 26 of Tenerife South also increase to a hundred, while Tenerife North, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura have 30 troops each, while La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro, which at this time do not have fiscal agents – this task is are carried out by the citizen security guards – they have at least five agents on each island.
“The regional police can do it”
The Ministry of the Interior, the State Tax Agency and the Government of the Canary Islands signed in 2009 a collaboration agreement regarding the investigation of fraud in relation to the taxes of the economic and fiscal regime (REF), as well as for surveillance functions and fiscal control in the import and export operations of merchandise in the Canary Islands. Through this agreement, the State left in the hands of the autonomous community the “fiscal safeguard”, that is, this customs control, although it was specified in the text of the agreement that it would continue to be carried out by the Civil Guard. However, from this security body it is considered that these functions could also be performed by the regional police.
Only students who enroll before July 31 of this year – in the United Kingdom, access to the university for the following year is already closed on those dates – will maintain the conditions prior to leaving the United Kingdom from the EU. The difference is remarkable, since the course in an English university, which is neither public nor 100% private, costs up to now 9,000 pounds a year for English and EU Europeans, and from next August the annual amount will multiply for five, up to 45,000 pounds. Things change if the university is in Scotland. There they are free for British and Europeans until at least July 31.
That is a university student from Alicante in London or Oxford, for example, you will have to pay as if you were a national of Andorra, Monaco, Taiwan or Cairo. From there, the unique British university system, linked to the Patronage Law, also offers a series of scholarships that can even make students study without contributing a pound, on account of returning them later when they get a job .
There are students who study outside of Spain outside of the Erasmus program. | ALEX DOMÍNGUEZ
On the other hand, and in the event that a family from Alicante wants to emulate Kings Felipe and Letizia, the issue changes a bit. The International Baccalaureate that Princess Eleanor will study in Wales is studied in one of the 14 centers of the World Schools, an institution created after the Second World War, and which until a few years ago was only accessed with a scholarship. Today They also admit students who pay the 72,000 euros for the two courses, after an interview with the candidate, the same as in universities.
As for the students and workers from Alicante who are currently residing in Great Britain, there is no problem as long as they have been five years old and can access the settlement certificate (Settlment Scheme), which makes you a resident and allows you to have a bank account, key requirement to guarantee residency in the UK. The only difference of Alicante students is that until now they crossed the border with their DNI and from October 31 of this year they will need a passport. If you are a worker, you have been living in London for five years and you have a stable job, no problem. In the case of residing for fewer years, the British government will grant you the certificate of “pre-settled”, as long as you don’t have your flawless criminal resume. They may continue to use the DNI until 2025.
And the Erasmus program?
As of the next academic year, the United Kingdom stops participating in the Erasmus program. The British Government will create its own program, named Turing in honor of the mathematician Alan Turing. Endowed with an allocation of 100 million pounds, it will finance 35,000 students abroad from September. British universities are expected to be able to negotiate with Spanish universities, but outside the community program.
Regarding the future employment of a student from Alicante who finishes his degree in the United Kingdom, he may apply for a Bachelor’s visa, which allows him to stay to work or look for a job for two years, extendable to three if he is pursuing a doctorate. It is key, for example, that you can open a bank account, something complicated if you are not British.
Spain had an ace up its sleeve. After several troubles in the British Justice to execute the judgment of the Supreme Court on the Prestige and manage to enter the 855 million euros of the insurance, the legal representatives of the Kingdom of Spain, coordinated by the State Attorney, have achieved a breakthrough in the Supreme Court of England and Wales.
This court has raised before the European Union a preliminary ruling on the conflict of jurisdictions underlying the claim, so that the insurer, the London P&I Club, pay the 1,000 million dollars to which it was convicted as direct civil liability. In other words, Spain has succeeded, even after the Brexi, that the highest community judicial body acts as arbitrator in a situation where everything indicated that the British jurisdiction was going to be more receptive to the interests of the mutual maritime company, which in the last eight years had tried to shield itself in court against an execution of the sentence that they already see coming.
The State Attorney has informed the First Section of the Provincial Court of A Corua, in charge of the execution of the sentence, of the new judicial scenario that opens with this decision and that allows to dissipate the procedural pessimism regarding the possibility that the oil slick damage was justly repaired, nearly 19 years after the tanker accident.
The voice of Galicia
The brief explains that the procedure to execute the sentence in the British jurisdiction began in March 2019 -before Brexi– under the protection of the Community judicial cooperation regulation, which will continue to be in force despite the recent departure of the United Kingdom from the EU. In this context, they explain, the London P&I Club, the mutual that signed the policy, opposes the execution of the sentence on the basis of an alleged irreconcilability of resolutions and an alleged violation of human rights in the development of criminal proceedings in Spain, in reference to the criminal treatment received by the captain of the Prestige, Apostolos Mangouras, among other factors aimed at delegitimizing the process.
There can be no revision
Faced with this strategy, the legal representatives of the Kingdom of Spain – the prestigious law firm Squire Patton Boggs – argued that the English court cannot extend itself in reviewing the content of the Spanish judicial decision, because this implies an inadmissible interference in the exercise of the jurisdictional function by the Spanish courts and, by extension, in the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Spain, and sows the most absolute mistrust in the way of proceeding of the English courts, explains the State Attorney in the letter sent to the Corsican Court.
The British court, in light of these allegations by Spain, decided to refer this question for a preliminary ruling to the Court of Justice of the EU. On the website of the community judicial body it appears that the case was registered on December 22, but it has not advanced since then. It is hardly explained that the applicable international regulation is the 1958 New York Convention, that regulates the execution of national sentences in foreign jurisdictions.
The State Attorney General, Consuelo Castro Rey, from Galicia, explained in a recent interview for La Voz that her main objective was for the British courts to raise this prejudicial question. There are a number of previous pronouncements by the British courts – he explained – that we understand to be contrary to the right to enforce sentences of one country in another EU country. And that can only be decided by the European Court of Justice.
The State Attorney’s letter also explains that the Prestige insurer reacted with new lawsuits against the Kingdom of Spain. On the one hand, a claim for damages for the alleged breach of an arbitration award and a British judgment that sought to avoid the execution of the Spanish judgment. And, on the other, a procedure to appoint an arbitrator. Both were appealed.
A judge gives the reason to the insurer so that it is an arbitrator who decides. The decision harms Spanish interests, but the complex judicial process continues
The judicial maze of lawsuits and counterclaims that is being developed in London to enforce the Prestige ruling of the Supreme Court, which obliges the tanker’s insurer to pay 855 million euros, has taken a course that goes against Spanish interests and of the legitimate desire to achieve compensation for the ecological disaster. Although the trial of the main lawsuit will be held in December, an order by Judge Andrew Henshaw, also from the commercial chamber of the Supreme Court of England and Wales, returns the disputes to 2013, when the British Justice decided that any claim from Spain and France In this regard it must be developed under the terms of the coveted $ 1 billion policy. That is, it must be settled by means of an extrajudicial arbitration, leaving in the background that there is a final ruling from a community court such as the Spanish Supreme Court. It must be remembered that, despite the Brexi, the Brussels cooperation rules will still be in force, as the order for the enforcement of the judgment in the British jurisdiction was registered on time, in May 2019.
Learn about our entire newsletter offer
We have created a selection of content for you so that you can comfortably receive it in your email. Discover our new service.
London Unfortunately, it is too early to say what impact Brexit will have on the UK art market, ”writes Anthony Browne of the British Art Market Federation (BAMF) on request. “At the end of the year at the earliest, you can probably have a balanced position on this.” This statement is surprising, as the BAMF was one of the few lobby groups in the run-up to Brexit that were active in favor of leaving the EU. And it is factually incorrect that no effects have emerged so far.
The director of Lapada, an association of British art and antique dealers, Freya Simms, has more to report. For months, the association has been trying to prepare members for Brexit: the website has published a detailed catalog of questions and answers and webinars have been held. Still, the phones don’t stand still.
Small traders in particular are trying desperately to adapt to the new conditions. Transport problems and questions about declarations, customs duties and taxes are in the foreground. Since January 1st, objects have to be declared in detail when they are imported or exported.
Customs clearance takes time and costs money. Gone are the days when a trader could buy his van in France at markets, simply bring the objects across the border and then sell them on the island with a premium are over once and for all. It is also not a solution to entrust everything to the art transport specialists, says Simms. The profit margins often did not cover the additional costs.
Top jobs of the day
Find the best jobs now and be notified by email.
Despite the preparatory work of the Lapada, the exit from the customs union caused a shock for many traders. It goes so far that some people also rethink their business models. Simms’ conclusion: At the moment, all market participants have more paperwork, longer working hours and higher costs – and supply and demand in the decorative sector may become provincial.
Simon Sheffield is the executive director of Martinspeed Ltd., one of the great logisticians in Great Britain. Of course he is happy to see the additional work; and assures the Handelsblatt that there would be no traffic jams, no damage and no problems. His company has been preparing for Brexit for years and has good relationships with the authorities so that customs clearances can be carried out in the warehouses.
While it is good to hear of such stability, it sounds like you have to pay to ensure that everything will go well. The company is happy about more orders as customers are practically forced to work with the big companies. But he also emphasizes that the corona crisis caused the entire transport volume to decrease.
Martin Keaney, Managing Director of Artgo, a smaller London transport company confirms this. Before Brexit, he drove to the mainland once or twice a week, now once or twice a month. He speaks of almost 600 euros additional costs per load, regardless of value and size, which the customs documents alone require.
Got stuck in customs
If leading galleries and auction houses can cope with high sales and high values, that doesn’t mean that everything will run smoothly for them. Thaddaeus Ropac reports to the Handelsblatt that he is currently preparing an exhibition in Paris with works by the hyped American Alvaro Barrington, who lives in London.
Barrington’s work is currently stuck in customs in France. Because the artist sent parts to complete most of the works in the gallery on site. Accordingly, transport lists and photos cannot be clearly compared, which customs did not accept at the time of the phone call and did not approve the work.
Lothar Götz “oT”
The small-format colored pencil drawing from 2020 was sent to Düsseldorf by FedEx (excerpt).
(Photo: Galerie Petra Rinck)
Ropac emphasizes: “It has become much more difficult to move art between the galleries”. It’s not just about the money, but also about the effects on creativity: “With the English artists, I see a tiredness,” says the large gallery owner.
In a smaller area, where there is no staff of employees, the situation looks even more precarious. This is confirmed by a number of smaller galleries from Great Britain as well as Germany.
Transport costs too high
Petra Rinck, Gallery owner from Düsseldorf, is currently preparing an exhibition with the German artist Lothar Götz, who lives in London. She spoke openly to the Handelsblatt about the new transport problems and the costs. So in the end she only let Götz’s small works per FedEx bring to Germany. Two large jobs had to stay in London, a transport would not have paid off, especially if there was no sale.
Rinck also represents the artist Emma Talbot. She won the Max Mara Prize for Women. The Kunsthalle Gießen is planning an exhibition with Talbot, which has been postponed to 2023 due to the pandemic. The cost estimate for the transport of the work was too high due to the timing – unacceptable.
Martinspeed has good contacts with customs.
The situation is of course different for other galleries. Unit Gallery in London, a young gallery that has relied on social media as a sales incentive since it was founded in 2013, sells works by its artists all over the world. The gallery has a logistics team for whom it makes little difference whether a work is exported to Europe or Hong Kong. There are just more forms. The gallery sells 80 percent of its turnover abroad, the employees are used to the bureaucracy.
Unfortunately, collectors don’t quite see it that way yet. Joe Kennedy, one of the founders, reports how a sale to Greece almost never happened because the collector not only had to pay increased transport costs, but also the import sales tax of 20 percent as a surcharge on the work. It has been heard from various quarters that the different tax regulations for goods with Great Britain, which vary from country to country, require special attention.
Kennedy calls this labor pains. The devil lies in the details here too, with all the VAT rates, import and export taxes that exist in Europe. Nevertheless, in conversation with this younger generation of gallery owners, it becomes clear how a global company differs from one for whom geographical and cultural proximity in Europe is important.
The bottom line: In a global, digitized world in which customer service should be in the foreground, the return to bureaucracy is a significant step backwards. Above all, the artists, galleries, but also collectors will suffer from this if the costs of this extra work go to the bottom. Some people are reorienting themselves: In Germany there are already transport companies who no longer drive to the island. And in the worst case, collectors buy elsewhere.
The Berlin gallery owner Aeneas Bastian, who also runs a branch in London, can still allow himself to maintain the exchange, but he sums up the change in a nutshell: “The spontaneity and creativity in the exchange between the Kingdom and Europe is being lost, in the commercial and non- commercial area ”. At least no one seems to benefit from this so far.
More: Art Market Report: The art market faces an uncertain future
The Boris Johnson government has deployed a new batch of aid to the fisheries and aquaculture sectors, mainly to compensate for the damage suffered in the first weeks of Brexit as a result of the chaos at the borders, as well as the COVID. Last month Downing Street provided £ 23 million, which was deemed insufficient by companies. Now they will be subsidized up to three months of fixed costs, such as port fees, equipment rental or marine insurance.
Stefan Zweig, author of the autobiography ‘El mundo de yesterday’ and a good handful of novels, biographies, essays and plays that the Acantilado publishing house has become a hallmark in recent years, he also wrote newspapers. In them Zweig wrote down delicate aspects of his personal life, in contrast to the more prudent account of his autobiography, and the family resisted publishing them for four decades until in 1984 they were finally released in German.
We have had to wait another four decades for its translation into Spanish, which has been carried out Editions 98 in ‘ Diaries (1931-1940)‘and which has been in bookstores since the beginning of the year. As it explains Jesus Blázquez in