Point and end in Valencia and Turkey

Five days of competition in our country and eight in Turkey have marked the competitive week for Burgos BH. With several top-10 of Manuel Peñalver to the sprint in the first days or the escape of Juan Antonio López-Cózar summarize a positive balance, which has taken place in 15th place in the general of Jetse Bol. The team victory on the second day of Valencia and escapades such as Ángel Madrazo and Alex Molenaar shone in the national race, where Dani Navarro was the best in the general classification within the top-20.

Thus ends a block of competition in which French classics, Itzulia and the double front in Turkey and Valencia have been chained. Opportunity now to recover and maintain the rhythm of the competition, already thinking about the tests in two weeks. The first of them, an important Tour of Asturias that will begin on April 30.

José Cabedo analyzes a performance in Turkey that is “to be satisfied.” «Manuel Peñalver has taken advantage of his opportunities to sprint, with positions of honor. In the toughest days, Jetse Bol and Diego Rubio were there and it shows in the general classification where they have signed the 15th and 17th position in the general classification. We have worked well and we must maintain this level.

Rubén Pérez explained the development of the Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana: «We have shown a good level, I think we are doing well and we have shown it. When you have worked for the sprint, you have seen results and perhaps where we failed to measure up. I think that each and every one of the cyclists has turned to group goals and teammates, which is to be very happy. Little oversights have kept us from a much better result, but the path is this and we will continue in this line. The goal of victory is still there and every day we get closer ”.

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Levante rescues a point and Valencia breaks its bad streak

Valencia. Levante Femenino will be very attentive to today’s match between Real Madrid and Betis at noon. And it is that those of María Pry, who yesterday rescued a point on the horn, will lose second place in case the white team prevails against the Verdiblanco. The granotas tied against Sporting de Huelva in the last gasp (2-2).

Levante went into halftime losing 0-2, but the game’s script was going to change in the second half. In a heroic way and entrusting themselves to the top scorer of the Primera Iberdrola, the Barça team managed to put the tables on the scoreboard. Shortly after the restart, Esther González cut differences in a convoluted play inside the area. The referee added six minutes and, on the horn, the attacker from Granada signed the final tie. One more point in the fight for the Champions League positions.

For its part, Valencia Femenino was reunited with victory after more than two months. Those of José Bargues, who dragged seven days without knowing the victory, surpassed Madrid CFF yesterday (2-0). The black and white team entered the game well and only lacked precision to unbalance the score.

In the 20th minute, Valencia took the lead through Torrodà, who defined perfectly after a sensational pass from Carro. The Madrid team pressed in search of a draw, but without success.

After the break, Enith was providential to avoid the 1-1 by clearing a penalty taken by Priscila. Madrid CFF overturned, but Candela sentenced.

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Barcelona beat Valladolid and got one point behind the leader, Atlético de Madrid

A goal of Ousmane Dembele With a volley shot in the 90th minute, he gave Barcelona the victory against Valladolid that had been left with 10 players in the 79th due to a direct red from Oscar Plano.

The French player had previously been able to open the scoring when he was left alone before Masip in the 57th minute. The Valladolid goalkeeper rejected the shot and Antoine Griezmann’s header went slightly wide with the goalkeeper already beaten.

Earlier, in minute 9, the Pucelano team could have gone ahead on the scoreboard with a Kenan Kodro header that crashed into the crossbar by Marc-André Ter Stegen.

The victory places Ronald Koeman’s team one point behind Atlético de Madrid, which is the leader of LaLiga.

It is the nineteenth consecutive game for the Catalans without losing, a team that has achieved 40 of the last 42 points and that has traced 12 points to Atlético de Madrid. That is why Barcelona now depends on itself to win the championship, and next Saturday in Valdebebas, against Real Madrid, it has another good chance to continue believing.

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fine knit sweater and white shirt

Kate Middleton confirms which it is the perfect halftime combo: fine knit sweater and white shirt with a nice collar. There is nothing we like more than see our royals favorites in more relaxed looks and outside of the impressive dresses of the finery to which they attend. We are not going to fool ourselves either, we loved it when the other day we saw Queen Letizia rescue that dreamy pink feather top, but even more so when she wears clothes that we can get ourselves, like Charo Ruiz’s Ibizan dress.

Their casual looks are also very sophisticated but in very simple lines. We have confirmed it again. Today we stood at the aperitif hour with an image of the Duchess of Cambridge that they have shared from the official account of Kensington Palace.

“The incredible acts of kindness, helpers and heroes that emerged from all walks of life and how together we adjust to a new normal.” With these beautiful words, Kate Middleton shared a reflection on these hard moments that we have had to live and shared an image of her smiling and very stylish. The Duchess of Cambridge made her first public appearance a few days ago in a gorgeous pink coat after the uproar caused by the Harry and Meghan Markle interview.

Out of the eye of controversy, today’s styling has attracted a lot of attention and has not stopped receiving praise in the comments. It is not for less because it is about a perfect combo for these days when neither hot nor cold. It is a fine knit sweater in a red-maroon color (the favorite shade of our royals because Letizia also wore it the other day) combined over a white shirt with pleats at the neck. You already know that a white shirt is one of those trendy classics that solve any look but we will copy your trick so there is no boring look. The key is in the neck so we will bet on shirts with a bobo neck or with the classic but that is seen.

COPY THE LOOK OF KATE MIDDLETON

If you want get an outfit like the Duchess of Cambrigde, here we leave you a fine knit sweater in the same tone and also an identical shirt so you can emulate it. The sweater is by Naf Naf and the shirt by Claudie Pierlot, which is very low.

Maroon fine knit sweater by Naf Naf

NAF NAF

PURCHASE

Claudie Pierlot pleated neck shirtClaudie Pierlot pleated neck shirt

CLAUDIE PIERLOT

PURCHASE

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The Covid causes a setback in terms of gender equality | Fortune

Experts predict that the Covid-19 crisis has meant a five-year advance in many industries, especially in terms of digitization. But this evolution has not been uniform across the board. In addition to the health catastrophe, the pandemic has meant a step backwards in some social rights, as is the case with gender equality.

This is reflected in the report How Covid Affects Women’s Careers and Female Leadership in Europe, prepared by the consultancy BCG, which reflects that the pandemic has resulted in an overload of work, especially for women who are mothers. They ensure that they dedicate twice as much unpaid work, an average of 27 hours a week more than before the pandemic, to carry out housework or tasks related to the education of their children. This also has an impact on the professional field: 30% of European mothers say that their ability to perform at work has decreased with the pandemic, a percentage that in the case of Spain reaches 37%. Thus, 44% claim to be at a disadvantage compared to the rest of their peers without children.

But Covid-19 has not only impacted mothers. Teleworking, which has been shown as a measure that could contribute to conciliation and, therefore, to equality, also has many shadows. 38% of women do not have a private space in which to work, 28% say they are constantly interrupted, and 40% do not feel secure about their employment. Percentages that are 10 points lower in the case of their male colleagues.

For the president of BCG for Western Europe, South America and Africa, Hubertus Meinecke, the fact that the discontent of women is higher is due to three main reasons: they have felt more isolated during confinement, they are more burned by the work and personal overexertion that they have had to reconcile and, finally, due to a question of trust and visibility, if they already had more problems than their colleagues to have their voice heard in person, virtual meetings have made this task even more complicated. “I hope it ends up being less, but my impression is that With the pandemic, we have lost 20 years in the race to close the gender gap”, Assures the BCG spokesperson.

Teleworking by itself does not imply a better conciliation, even less in a context like the current one, and that is how working people have felt it. More than half believe that the company has not offered specific measures to reconcile the domestic responsibilities derived from the new situation and a similar proportion do not consider that their superiors have been aware of this. It is striking that Spain is one of the few European countries in which women have noticed greater support than men, ahead of more advanced economies, such as Germany, in which a more marked gender gap has been revealed.

For the deputy director general of Fundación Seres, Lucila García, companies must make a great effort not to leave anyone behind at a time like this. “Because of this burnout [síndrome del quemado] that women are suffering to a greater extent, we are seeing that a quarter are considering abandoning their employment. We can go back to numbers from 10 years ago, that is a drama that we cannot afford, neither as a society nor as a company ”, he insists. The sociologist and business growth expert Alejandra Nuño is also blunt, who recalls that talent is essential to face recovery: “in times of crisis we cannot allow ourselves to corner anyone”. An issue that takes on special relevance now that more focus has been placed on the emotional health of the workforce: “We cannot talk about corporate well-being when half of your internal population is not on equal footing,” he recalls.

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Xiaomi prepare a new Smart TV from the hand of Redmi | Smart tv

It is quite clear that the company Xiaomi intends to improve its position in the Smart TV market. And, for this, it is close to launching a new product that aims to have a large screen and that will be part of the product range Redmi TV MAX. Some data of this model have been known that are very interesting.

The first thing is that it is practically certain that the new television will be announced on February 25, taking advantage of an event in which a new phone will also be official: the Redmi K40. Therefore, it is a matter of a couple of days before it is known what the Asian company has prepared to continue competing face-to-face with brands such as Samsung, LG and even Sony. By the way, in a message that the firm itself has published it is indicated that this product “it will be so big that you can hardly get into an elevator”. Notice for Boaters.

One of the things that is certain on the new TV is that the operating system will be Android TV, but as usual it will have a strong customization called PatchWall that will make its interface different (but the installation of applications and the usual functions will be there). Besides, the resolution will be 4K and will have content compatibility HDR, which ensures that you can enjoy series and movies without any type of restriction and the panel will include LED backlighting and the frequency will reach 60 Hz. Therefore, its quality is assured.

Xiaomi

More options that this Xiaomi Smart TV will have

For optimal operation, such as when using applications or when scaling images that do not reach 4K resolution, it must be indicated that there will be a processor inside this model Amlogic T972 quad-core that is combined with 4 GB of RAM. Thus, it will be possible to even run games without much trouble. Something where the new model will stand out spatially will be in a storage of sixty-four gigabytes to store content and, in addition, it will have a pair of speakers with a power of 8 W that will be compatible with Dolby.

Finally you have to comment that good connectivity is expected, with options such as three HDMI ports or not missing Bluetooth and WiFi (Apart from existing Ethernet to access the Internet by cable if it is needed). With all this, and taking into account that the price will not be exorbitant as is usual in the Xiaomi sub-brand we are talking about, this model looks very good that in a couple of days it will be official.

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what does it mean and when is the next

What would you think if I told you that the dance that the Earth and Venus make around the Sun is similar to that of a beautiful flower or five-pointed star? And that each of these tips is a new opportunity for us to recycle ourselves in matters related to Venus: love, beauty, harmony, self-worth?

As we already know, Venus, the beautiful Aphrodite, born from a seashell made of sea foam, represents one of the feminine principles par excellence. It is the ability we have to be receptive, to attract what we want, to seduce, of link us with others, to find in our life what provides us pleasure, enjoyment, beauty, harmony and balance.

Venus in our natal chart, by house and sign, shows us how we bondboth with others and with money. It also tells us about our self-worth and worthiness.

But the cycles of Venus they bring us other information. The orbit of this planet, as it revolves around the Sun, forms together with that of the Earth a beautiful pattern that takes eight years to complete. If we doubted that Venus is the goddess of love and beauty, this beautiful flower makes it clear to us. As always, the universe speaks to us, this time with a show that leaves us speechless.

The orbit of this planet, as it revolves around the Sun, forms together with that of the Earth a beautiful pattern that takes eight years to complete. If we doubted that Venus is the goddess of love and beauty, this beautiful flower makes it clear to us. Photo: Shutterstock.

What is Venus Star Point

Every nine months a new conjunction of the Sun with Venus, similar to the gestation time that we have in the womb, so here the Venusian meaning transcends the linking, to be part of the process of creating life. Venus tells us about pleasure, beauty, harmony and vitality, whose concepts we cycle every nine months and until completing the eight-year cycle, where something linked to Venusian themes is renewed.

The last Venus Star Point the June 3, 2020 at 13 ° Gemini. The Sun conjunct Venus retrograde (here Venus was positioned between the orbit of the Sun and that of the Earth, and can be seen a few hours before sunrise, like the morning star), something similar with the new moon phase, marking a beginning for the Venusian cycle.

This point, the conjunction, provides a moment of connection with what internally prevents us from achieving what we want, focusing on issues such as deserving, lack, and enjoyment of life. What are our internal resistances that prevent us from achieving what we long for?

The goddess Venus.

The goddess Venus.

Venus Star Point: next is in March

The March 26, 2021 we will have a new Venus Star Point to 6th Aries (both planets in direct phase), beginning the phase of culmination or “full moon” (evening star) of that internal process that began at the beginning of June 2020, and then “give birth” to what we have been developing in the last nine months, looking for results or answers to our internal process.

The Venus Star Points have a meaning that transcends relationship issues, going deeper: healing the most important relationship, the one we have with ourselves.

This cycle offers us a considerable period of time to act on these matters, understanding that desires that are not manifested on the outside are directly related to our self-image. Therefore, if I perceive that enjoyment and fulfillment are not manifesting in my life, perhaps it is time to analyze these issues.

We are all artists, and life is our color palette. Each color is a personal talent, perhaps we need to renew our palette to paint the reality that we long for with the colors that inhabit our interior.

When the Venus Star Point coincides with that of our birth (the one in the link above) we experience exceptional events.  Venus Star Point: how we recycle our way of loving and being loved.  Photo: Shutterstock.

When the Venus Star Point coincides with that of our birth (the one in the link above) we experience exceptional events. Venus Star Point: how we recycle our way of loving and being loved. Photo: Shutterstock.

How to calculate the Venus Star Point of my natal chart

To calculate your Venus Star Point, you only have to detect in the following link the date of the last Sun Venus conjunction before or close to your birth. The link is in English and corresponds to its discoverer and main broadcaster, Arielle Guttman:

Star Point

Star point Find Your Venus Star Point


When the Venus Star Point coincides with that of our birth (the one in the link above) we experience exceptional events linked to the Venusian themes I described above. Can match pregnancies, creative processes that come to light, new ventures, relationships important affective factors in our life (whether culmination, beginning or renewal).

An exercise that you can do is to see in the table the different dates on which the Venus Star Point occurs in the sign of your natal Star Point to identify events in those periods of time.

This will allow you to put awareness and focus on issues from the past, whether related to bonds or your self-esteem (which often go hand in hand) to understand what should heal and renew in Venusian issues, as well as develop a new creative vein .

A false-color view of Venus taken by the Japanese Akatsuki Venus Climate Orbiter probe in 2018. Photo: PLANET-C / JAXA / NYT project team

A false-color view of Venus taken by the Japanese Akatsuki Venus Climate Orbiter probe in 2018. Photo: PLANET-C / JAXA / NYT project team

Valentine and Venus Star Point

Regardless of your link state, when we talk about the Venus Star Point we connect with the principle of creation and manifestation, where the cycle can be internal. When it occurs with Venus in its retrograde phase (cycle that we are currently closing); or external, manifesting itself in facts, events, relationships and births.

This does not mean that every Venus Star Point we will be restarting or ending a relationship, but that we have the opportunity to renew our internal concepts: reviewing our self-esteem, how others see me, how I want to be seen, how I want to seduce or be seduced, and mainly what I want to attract into my life.

I invite you to reflect, review and understand the events of the last months in your life, so that you can understand what is your situation today, with the following questions: How do I connect with fulfillment in my life? How is my self-esteem and my self-image? What do I want to renew in the area of ​​relationships? How do I connect with others? Do I express harmony in the links? How is the relationship I have with money? Is there enjoyment in my life?

If you do this exercise analyzing what happened in your life since June 2020 So far on issues related to love, your relationship with the material world and your capacity for enjoyment, perhaps, at the next Venus Star Point on March 26, 2021 we will have the possibility to see something of this manifested internal process!

Remember that love is an energy that transcends everything, and it is everywhere. Love is never unhealthy, twisted or distorted, it is we with our habits that form unhealthy bonds around unresolved needs, past dissatisfactions and the search for security and control.

By astrologer and teacher Laura Graffigna. Access their networks to participate in their next free MasterClass on astrology. IG: @good astrology

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Northern Ireland, the weak point of Brexit


  • Johnson threatens the EU with eliminating controls at the maritime border due to the social and economic problems they are creating in the region


  • The pro-Irish republicans ask him to assume the consequences of the agreement he signed with Brussels and are betting on a reunification referendum


  • The Irish government opens the door to a “modest extension” of the Brexit grace period but closes it to a renegotiation of the terms of the Northern Irish protocol

The situation in Northern Ireland is unsustainable with Brexit. This was one of the arguments of the Europeanists during the 2016 referendum campaign and it was what stopped the agreement until the end and forced the creation of a protocol for the region annexed to the Treaty of Exit from the European Union (EU). Now, just a month after the consummation of Brexit, all these problems have surfaced again and there is talk of returning to box number one. Northern Irish businessmen have asked Boris Johnson to renegotiate the deal because it is unfeasible for the region. Johnson blames the EU and the EU says that’s what he signed.

Last week the prime minister threatened Brussels to activate article 16 of the protocol for Northern Ireland, which is a emergency measure that would allow the United Kingdom to cancel parts of the agreement in case of generating social or economic problems in the province. This would mean eliminating the border that is currently on the coast and lifting it on the island of Ireland, something that is incompatible with the 1998 peace accords. The state attorney general, Suella Braverman, has agreed with Johnson. “We will do whatever it takes to get a good deal for Northern Ireland and a good deal for the Union [de las cuatro naciones que integran el Reino Unido]”, said.

On the other hand, Michael Gove, Johnson’s second, asked his European counterpart, Maros Sefcovic, a two-year extension of the three-month grace period that the EU granted to supermarkets, shippers, refrigerated meat importers, package couriers, and drug suppliers operating in Northern Ireland. Controls are now minimal and, despite this, there are supply problems. Gove told Sefcovic that Brussels must urgently commit to the British proposals. The situation could become even more complicated in April when border controls are definitively applied. However, this Monday the Irish government has opened the door to a “modest extension” of the grace period, but has ruled out a renegotiation of the terms of the Northern Irish protocol.

The Johnson Grant

Brexit, as it was conceived, entailed placing a border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The border ran contrary to the 1998 peace accords, which ended three decades of armed conflict between Catholic Republicans (who want Northern Ireland to be part of the Republic of Ireland again) and Protestant Unionists and Loyalists (who wish to remain in the UK), the two communities that coexist in the territory. The conflict left a trail of 3,500 dead. The agreements of 98, in which the Irish, British and American governments participated, left the region within the United Kingdom and eliminated the border with Ireland. In order to close the deal with the EU, Johnson agreed to move controls to the sea that separates the island of Great Britain (where England, Scotland and Wales are) and the island of Ireland (where Northern Ireland, which is British territory, and the Republic of Ireland, European territory).

Johnson made this concession in order to close the minimum agreement with Brussels in November 2019 and win the elections. To get it sacrificed the support of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which opposed it for fear of creating an internal border which, in the long run, will lead to reunification with Ireland. Johnson assured that nothing changed, that there would be no internal border, that there would be no controls. It devastated the December 2019 elections. Last September It has already tried to annul those concessions within the law that regulated the internal market, but the upper house did not allow it, considering it violated an international agreement that he himself had signed.

The problems started the first day that Brexit was implemented. Red tape is making it difficult for British products to enter Northern Ireland. The DUP asks Johnson to activate article 16 of the protocol and remove all controls. It would not even seem right for the EU to extend the grace period for two more years because it considers that it would only be postponing the problem.

Unionist pressure

Pro-British unionists have already collected the 100,000 signatures required for the London Parliament to debate the activation of Article 16. Sinn Féin pro-Irish Republicans are opposed. Unionists and Republicans share government in Northern Ireland with the Unionist Arlene Foster, leader of the DUP, as chief minister, and Republican Michelle O’Neill, vice-president of Sinn Féin, as chief deputy minister. Sinn Féin has no representation in London because it does not recognize the British government. “It is time for an unlimited flow of goods within the UK single marketSnapped Foster.

The problem is that if the maritime border is removed, then it must be moved to the border with the Republic of Ireland. This goes against the peace accords. So, the EU should make concessions to remove controls, which is what they have been discussing all these years. For her part, Michelle O’Neill called the unionist demand “unrealistic.” “It’s ironic since the DUP and the ‘Tories’ [los conservadores] they were the ones who brought a Brexit that everyone warned him had consequences. And the result is what we have now, this is the reality of the trade agreement they signed and nothing can be done about itO’Neill said. Sinn Féin wants Northern Ireland to become Irish territory again. Ireland gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1922 and left its northern province of Ulster within the United Kingdom.

The latest poll by the conservative British newspaper ‘The Times’ says that Most Northern Irishmen want a referendum on the reunification of the island to be held in the next five years, although there is still no Republican majority. According to the peace accords, the referendum must be held if there is a majority. The same survey indicated that the majority of Scots want a new independence consultation in their territory. The difference is that in Scotland there is a pro-independence majority. One of the consequences that they warned that Brexit could cause was the dismemberment of the union of the four nations that make up the country, sealed in the Treaty of the Union of 1707, since Brexit is understood as an expression of English nationalism.

Biden and the graffiti

In 2016, in Northern Ireland, where 56% of the population opposed Brexit, tempers had already calmed down after the goodbye to the arms of IRA Republicans and pro-British loyalist paramilitary groups. In recent days, graffiti of loyalists have appeared on walls against the DUP and against former Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar, whom they threatened to kill. Too graffiti appeared in the port cities of Larne and Belfast against checkpoints They forced them to be suspended for five days to guarantee the safety of the workers.

The police ruled out that the paramilitaries were behind it and claimed that they were isolated threats. Police also warned of growing discontent among loyalist communities over the Brexit deal.. The tension increased after the announcement ten days ago by the European Commission to lift a land border between Northern Ireland to control the covid vaccines that AstraZeneca sent to the United Kingdom. Although the president of the Commission, Ursula Von der Leyen, immediately canceled the order and asked for forgiveness, the damage had already been done. It caused Johnson’s mistrust and unionists accused the Commission of creating tension in the region.

Another actor who may be decisive in the coming months is Joe Biden, the new American president. Biden, of Irish origin, already warned after winning the elections that, to close any free trade agreement with the United Kingdom, Johnson had to respect the peace accords in Northern Ireland. Northern Irish protocol respects them. However, the US Democratic congressman, Brendan Boyle, speaking to the Irish newspaper ‘Irish Central’, said it was “very likely” that a reunification referendum would be held in the next ten years and warned that sectarian tensions between Catholics and Protestants would increase as the debate intensifies and you had to prepare. “If we get to a situation where there is a unified Ireland, obviously there is the danger of terrorism and loyalist paramilitarism, and we will have to deal with this,” said Boyle, of Irish descent like Biden.

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Set your iPhone to stop wondering about wifi ‘hotspots’ | Lifestyle

One of the advantages of having several Apple devices is that communication between them is much more fluid and simple than in other ecosystems. We can take the iPhone and quickly connect it to a Mac or an iPad so that they have an internet connection when we are away from home, simply by clicking inside the access points section.

In that place, all the mobiles and tablets that have their own data connection, 4G / LTE, usually appear, in such a way that in case there is no wifi at hand, or the one available is without internet connection, we can continue browsing, working or seeing what we had half. What is a tremendously requested resource and that we often use practically on a daily basis.

Now, these access points have a problem and that is that when the Wi-Fi connection and the data connection are weak, the operating system is designed to automatically search for one that is around, which causes a series of alerts that they interrupt what we are doing. If it is not worse and it connects, which begins to spend gigs of its flat rate practically without us knowing.

We will remove the notices

In any case, if you have already used these access points on another occasion, it is very possible that this dialogue will not even be shown and the smartphoneautomatically log in without saying anything. To avoid all these situations, we’re going to tell iOS to forget about them. That we will be the ones to manage it manually.

Set up Wi-Fi access points.

So we go to the “Settings” of the iPhone and we enter the “Wi-Fi” functions. You can see the available access points just below the network to which you are connected. Anyway, we go further down to the option “Connection to access points”. We access inside and you will see three options. By default it is very possible that the second one will appear, that of “Ask before connecting”.

We recommend that you disconnect this function completely by choosing “Never” and, of course, not allowing the iPhone to do it automatically since it could cause a huge hole in the consumption of the data rate of the access point if we are not attentive and, above all, we do not have an unlimited plan with so many gigs as we want. So once the first option is chosen, any connection to a nearby iPhone or iPad will have to be done manually.

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Epilepsy, a disease that the pharmacological arsenal allows to control in 75% of cases

On February 8, Spain and 120 other countries commemorate the International Epilepsy Day, which in 2021 has as its motto Epilepsy is more than seizures and that it pursues, among other objectives, that all those affected have access to an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders of the central nervous system characterized by the presence of transient and self-limited seizures, motivated by an alteration in the function of groups of neurons in the cerebral cortex. The signs and symptoms of these seizures are highly variable, ranging from a slight tic or a brief parenthesis in the subject’s care to a generalized seizure lasting several minutes.

It is estimated that it affects 65 million people worldwide and that each year about 5 million new cases are diagnosed. In Spain, it is estimated that around 700,000 people suffer from this disease –of which about 260,000 have active epilepsy-, with 20,000 new cases being diagnosed a year. However, from a global perspective, the prognosis for epilepsy is usually favorable, since up to 60-80% of patients enter prolonged periods with remission of seizures, and up to 50% remain seizure-free after discontinuation treatment.

The current pharmacological arsenal, which exceeds 20 antiepileptic agents, makes it possible to control seizures in more than 75% of patients. Although these antiepileptic drugs do not cure the disease, they can improve the control of seizures and the quality of life of patients. Its selection is made according to the type of epilepsy, the characteristics of the patient, its possible adverse effects and its interaction with other medications.

Taking into account all this, pharmaceutical professionals, from their various fields of action, can contribute to the appropriate advice and health care for epileptic patients and their families. Although the role of the hospital pharmacist has an undoubted influence on the achievement of the best health results from pharmacotherapy for those patients who are cared for in the hospital after a first crisis or before complications of the disease, epilepsy is a disease that is mainly treated in the outpatient setting. And is that the majority of antiepileptic drugs available in Spain are dispensed in community pharmacy (only 48 of the more than 1,100 authorized commercial presentations are dispensed and used in hospitals).

Care functions of the pharmacist

In this context, the figure of the community pharmacist takes on special interest in matters such as health education, early detection and early diagnosis, or the optimization of pharmacological treatments.

This educational function is specified in the easily understandable, but scientifically rigorous information that the pharmacist can offer patients about antiepileptic drugs and their interaction with other drugs (including self-medication); as well as on the need to prevent factors that can trigger crises, such as emotional stress – aggravated by the pandemic situation – or alcohol consumption. It should also help to banish false myths, since the reality is that epilepsy is not “a mental illness”, but a neurological problem; that it is not a contagious disease either; or that the chances of inheriting the disease are very low. Likewise, people with a new diagnosis can be directed to patient associations that offer information, support and various social-health services, such as psychological assistance, such as Spanish Federation of Epilepsy or different local associations of patients with epilepsy, listed in the directory https://vivirconepilepsia.es/asociaciones-pacientes-epilepsia.

Another field of professional action is early detection and promotion of early diagnosis, acting as a sentinel agent pharmacist capable of identifying warning signs of an epileptic seizure, such as loss of consciousness, fever, sudden body stiffness possibly associated with falling to the ground or intense body convulsions in the most severe cases.

And, of course, the pharmacist, both hospital and community, is essential when optimizing the results of pharmacological treatments, ensuring the safe and effective use of drugs so that patients achieve the maximum clinical benefit. For this, it is necessary for the pharmacist to know all the medication used by these patients, both the one prescribed for epilepsy, and the treatments for concomitant diseases; or medications that do not need a prescription. Furthermore, as in other diseases that require prolonged treatment, adherence to treatment is a fundamental factor. It is estimated that between 35% and 50% of patients with epilepsy do not follow their treatment adequately, so it is very important to reinforce the promotion of adherence, especially in the phases in which patients are stable and not so closely controlled by your doctor. Lastly, adequate pharmacotherapeutic monitoring will allow the detection, attenuation and resolution of the possible appearance of adverse reactions (with the corresponding notification, where appropriate, to the National Pharmacovigilance System), and the identification and prevention of pharmacological interactions and contraindications.

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