The Scottish Parliament has voted in favor of rejecting Prime Minister Theresa May's Brexit agreement, claiming that parts of the country will remain "badly and permanently damaged".
SNP, Labor, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens voted for a motion calling for a "better alternative".
British Foreign Secretary Mike Russell said the debate was a "historic opportunity" for the Scottish Parliament, with a united voice against the EU's resignation agreement and also against the prospect of a no-deal.
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While the vote is merely symbolic, the resistance of Holyrood against the path taken by the Prime Minister is documented.
Russell said reducing migrants in the EU would hurt the Scottish economy and make it "much harder" for legal and financial companies to deal with Europe.
He said: "In all regions of Scotland there are companies, organizations, communities and individuals who will suffer for a long time under the direct consent of this Agreement.
"This deal is not even the end of uncertainty. That's just another false promise.
"In fact, the uncertainty resulting from the Prime Minister's deal would last until the end of the transitional period, which will not be in December 2020. Nobody believes that this is more likely to be December 2022 or even later.
"That's at least four years of uncertainty to add the two and a half we already had."
He added, "Scotland needs and deserves better than the prime minister's blindfold.
"In fact, this deal is about saving the prime minister, not saving their country."
However, the conservative MSP Adam Tomkins said the Prime Minister's deal was the only credible proposal that had been tabled since the EU referendum.
He said: "Either we leave the EU on the basis of the orderly resignation agreement that the Prime Minister and his team negotiated, or something very close to it, or we rush out of an EU that would not do business a disaster for the economy. "
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He said that the petition filed by the other parties to oppose the resignation plans and that no-deal brexit was "just noise" and rejection of the resignation agreement make a no-deal Brexit more likely.
"We want a better alternative," the motion says, with no indication of what that alternative would be and how it could possibly be delivered, "he said.
He accused the SNP of "arming" Brexit in the service of independence, saying that Labor and the Liberal Democrats had "fled" to give their support.
Labor's Neil Findlay said the prime minister's deal was "doomed to failure" and called for general elections.
He said the overwhelming feeling was "uncertainty" and accused the Conservatives of giving "chaos" to the EU referendum.
He said: "In the interests of the country, our economy, our jobs, our children, our environment and the rights we enjoy, the Prime Minister should admit that the game is going on and that democracy will prevail in a general election."
The MSPs voted 92-29 for the request.